make.bisseness {diversitree}R Documentation

Binary State Speciation and Extinction (Node Enhanced State Shift) Model


Prepare to run BiSSE-ness (Binary State Speciation and Extinction (Node Enhanced State Shift)) on a phylogenetic tree and character distribution. This function creates a likelihood function that can be used in maximum likelihood or Bayesian inference.


make.bisseness(tree, states, unresolved=NULL, sampling.f=NULL,
               nt.extra=10, strict=TRUE, control=list())



An ultrametric bifurcating phylogenetic tree, in ape “phylo” format.


A vector of character states, each of which must be 0 or 1, or NA if the state is unknown. This vector must have names that correspond to the tip labels in the phylogenetic tree (tree$tip.label). For tips corresponding to unresolved clades, the state should be NA.


Unresolved clade information: see section below for structure.


Vector of length 2 with the estimated proportion of extant species in state 0 and 1 that are included in the phylogeny. A value of c(0.5, 0.75) means that half of species in state 0 and three quarters of species in state 1 are included in the phylogeny. By default all species are assumed to be known.


The number of "extra" species to include in the unresolved clade calculations. This is in addition to the largest included unresolved clade.


List of control parameters for the ODE solver. See details in make.bisse.


The states vector is always checked to make sure that the values are 0 and 1 only. If strict is TRUE (the default), then the additional check is made that every state is present at least once in the tree. The likelihood models tend to be poorly behaved where a state is not represented on the tree.


make.bisse returns a function of class bisse. This function has argument list (and default values) [RICH: Update to BiSSEness?]

    f(pars, condition.surv=TRUE, root=ROOT.OBS, root.p=NULL,

The arguments are interpreted as

Unresolved clade information

This must be a data.frame with at least the four columns

These columns may be in any order, and additional columns will be ignored. (Note that column names are case sensitive).

An alternative way of specifying unresolved clade information is to use the function make.clade.tree to construct a tree where tips that represent clades contain information about which species are contained within the clades. With a clade.tree, the unresolved object will be automatically constructed from the state information in states. (In this case, states must contain state information for the species contained within the unresolved clades.)


Karen Magnuson-Ford


FitzJohn R.G., Maddison W.P., and Otto S.P. 2009. Estimating trait-dependent speciation and extinction rates from incompletely resolved phylogenies. Syst. Biol. 58:595-611.

Maddison W.P., Midford P.E., and Otto S.P. 2007. Estimating a binary character's effect on speciation and extinction. Syst. Biol. 56:701-710.

Magnuson-Ford, K., and Otto, S.P. 2012. Linking the investigations of character evolution and species diversification. American Naturalist, in press.

Nee S., May R.M., and Harvey P.H. 1994. The reconstructed evolutionary process. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 344:305-311.

See Also

make.bisse for the model with no state change at nodes.

tree.bisseness for simulating trees under the BiSSE-ness model.

constrain for making submodels, find.mle for ML parameter estimation, mcmc for MCMC integration, and for state-independent birth-death models.

The help pages for find.mle has further examples of ML searches on full and constrained BiSSE models.


## Due to a change in sample() behaviour in newer R it is necessary to
## use an older algorithm to replicate the previous examples
if (getRversion() >= "3.6.0") {
  RNGkind(sample.kind = "Rounding")

## First we simulate a 50 species tree, assuming cladogenetic shifts in
## the trait (i.e., the trait only changes at speciation).
## Red is state '1', black is state '0', and we let red lineages
## speciate at twice the rate of black lineages.
## The simulation starts in state 0.
pars <- c(0.1, 0.2, 0.03, 0.03, 0, 0, 0.1, 0, 0.1, 0)
phy <- tree.bisseness(pars, max.taxa=50, x0=0)

h <- history.from.sim.discrete(phy, 0:1)
plot(h, phy)

## This builds the likelihood of the data according to BiSSEness:
lik <- make.bisseness(phy, phy$tip.state)
## e.g., the likelihood of the true parameters is:
lik(pars) # -174.7954

## ML search:  First we make hueristic guess at a starting point, based
## on the constant-rate birth-death model assuming anagenesis (uses
## \link{}).
startp <- starting.point.bisse(phy)

## We then take the total amount of anagenetic change expected across
## the tree and assign half of this change to anagenesis and half to
## cladogenetic change at the nodes as a heuristic starting point:
t <- branching.times(phy)
tryq <- 1/2 * startp[["q01"]] * sum(t)/length(t)
p <- c(startp[1:4], startp[5:6]/2, p0c=tryq, p0a=0.5, p1c=tryq, p1a=0.5)

## Start an ML search from this point.  This takes some time (~12s), so
## is not run by default.
## Not run: 
fit <- find.mle(lik, p, method="subplex")
logLik(fit) # -174.0104

## Compare the fit to a constrained model that only allows the trait
## to change along a lineage (anagenesis).  This also takes some time
## (~12s) <- constrain(lik, p0c ~ 0, p1c ~ 0) <- find.mle(,p[argnames(])
logLik( # -174.0577

## This is consistent with what BiSSE finds:
likB <- make.bisse(phy, phy$tip.state)
fitB <- find.mle(likB, startp, method="subplex")
logLik(fitB) # -174.0576

## With only this 50-species tree, there is no statistical support
## for the more complicated BiSSE-ness model that allows cladogenesis:
## Note that anova() performs a likelihood ratio test here.

## If the above is repeated with max.taxa=250, BiSSE-ness rejects the
## constrained model in favor of one that allows cladogenetic change.

## MCMC run: We use the ML estimate from the full model
## as a starting point.
## We shift all very small numbers up to 1e-4 to allow the derivatives
## to be calculated. <- pmax(coef(fit), 1e-4)

## Make exponential priors for the rate parameters and uniform priors
## for the cladogenetic change probability prarameters.
make.prior.exp_ness <- function(r, min=0, max=1) {
  function(pars) {
    sum(dexp(pars[1:6], rate=r, log=TRUE)) +
      sum(dunif(pars[7:10], min, max, log=TRUE))

## Choosing the slice sampling parameter, w (affects speed):
hess <- hessian(lik,
vcv <- -solve(hess)
sehess <- sqrt(abs(diag(vcv)))
w <- 2 * pmin(sehess, .2)

## Setting the priors
r <- log(length(phy$tip.label))/max(branching.times(phy))
prior <- make.prior.exp_ness(1/(2*r))

## Running the mcmc chain (only 10 steps are shown for illustration)
steps <- 10
set.seed(1) # For reproducibility
output <- mcmc(lik,, nsteps=steps, w=w, prior=prior)

## Unresolved tip clade: Here we collapse one clade in the 50 species
## tree (involving sister species sp70 and sp71) and illustrate the use
## of BiSSEness with unresolved tip clades.
slimphy <- drop.tip(phy,c("sp71"))
states <- slimphy$tip.state[slimphy$tip.label]
states["sp70"] <- NA
unresolved <- data.frame(tip.label=c("sp70"), Nc=2, n0=2, n1=0)

## This builds the likelihood of the data according to BiSSEness:
lik.unresolved <- make.bisseness(slimphy, states, unresolved)
## e.g., the likelihood of the true parameters is:
lik.unresolved(pars) # -174.6575

## ML search from the heuristic starting point used above:
fit.unresolved <- find.mle(lik.unresolved, p, method="subplex")
logLik(fit.unresolved) # -173.9136

## End(Not run)

[Package diversitree version 0.9-16 Index]