{diversitree}R Documentation

Constant Rate Birth-Death Models


Prepare to run a constant rate birth-death model on a phylogenetic tree. This fits the Nee et al. 1994 equation, duplicating the birthdeath function in ape. Differences with that function include (1) the function is not constrained to positive diversification rates (mu can exceed lambda), (2) [eventual] support for both random taxon sampling and unresolved terminal clades (but see bd.ext), and (3) run both MCMC and MLE fits to birth death trees.

Usage, sampling.f=NULL, unresolved=NULL, times=NULL, control=list())
make.yule(tree, sampling.f=NULL, unresolved=NULL, times=NULL, control=list()), yule=FALSE)



An ultrametric bifurcating phylogenetic tree, in ape “phylo” format.


Vector of branching times, as returned by branching.times. You don't need to use this unless you know that you need to use this. Don't use it at the same time as tree.


Probability of an extant species being included in the phylogeny (sampling fraction). By default, all extant species are assumed to be included.


Unresolved clade information. This is a named vector, with the number of species as the value and names corresponding to tip labels. Tips that represent a single species should not be included in this vector. For example sp1=10, sp2=2, would mean that sp1 represents 10 species, while sp2 represents two. These labels must exist in tree$tip.label and all other tips are assumed to represent one species.


Should the starting point function return a Yule model (zero extinction rate)?


List of control parameters. The element method can be either nee or ode to compute the likelihood using the equation from Nee et al. (1994) or in a BiSSE-style ODE approach respectively. nee should be faster, and ode is provided for completeness (and forms the basis of other methods). When ode is selected, other elements of control affect the behaviour of the ODE solver: see details in make.bisse.

Details returns a function of class bd. This function has argument list (and default values)

    f(pars, prior=NULL, condition.surv=TRUE)

The arguments are interpreted as

The function "ode" method is included for completeness, but should not be taken too seriously. It uses an alternative ODE-based approach, more similar to most diversitree models, to compute the likelihood. It exists so that other models that extend the birth-death models may be tested.


Richard G. FitzJohn


Nee S., May R.M., and Harvey P.H. 1994. The reconstructed evolutionary process. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 344:305-311.

See Also

constrain for making submodels, find.mle for ML parameter estimation, mcmc for MCMC integration, and make.bisse for state-dependent birth-death models.


## Simulate a tree under a constant rates birth-death model and look at
## the maximum likelihood speciation/extinction parameters:
phy <- trees(c(.1, .03), "bd", max.taxa=25)[[1]]
lik <-

## By default, optimisation gives a lambda close to 0.1 and extremely
## small mu:
fit <- find.mle(lik, c(.1, .03))

## The above optimisation uses the algorithm \link{nlm} for
## compatibility with ape's \link{birthdeath}.  This can be slightly
## improved by using \link{optim} for the optimisation, which allows
## bounds to be specified:
fit.o <- find.mle(lik, c(.1, .03), method="optim", lower=0)

logLik(fit.o) - logLik(fit) # slight improvement

## Special case methods are worked out for the Yule model, for which
## analytic solutions are available.  Compare a direct fit of the Yule
## model with one where mu is constrained to be zero:
lik.yule <- make.yule(phy)
lik.mu0 <- constrain(lik, mu ~ 0)

## The same to a reasonable tolerance:
fit.yule <- find.mle(lik.yule, .1)
fit.mu0 <- find.mle(lik.mu0, .1)
all.equal(fit.yule[1:2], fit.mu0[1:2], tolerance=1e-6)

## There is no significant improvement in the fit by including the mu
## parameter (unsurprising as the ML value was zero)
anova(fit.o, yule=fit.yule)

## Optimisation can be done without conditioning on survival:
fit.nosurv <- find.mle(lik, c(.1, .03), method="optim", lower=0,
coef(fit.nosurv) # higher lambda than before

## Look at the marginal likelihoods, computed through MCMC (see
## \link{mcmc} for details, and increase nsteps for smoother
## plots [takes longer]).
samples <- mcmc(lik, fit$par, nsteps=500,
                lower=c(-Inf, -Inf), upper=c(Inf, Inf), w=c(.1, .1),
                fail.value=-Inf, print.every=100)
samples$r <- with(samples, lambda - mu)

## Plot the profiles (see \link{profiles.plot}).
## The vertical lines are the simulated parameters, which match fairly
## well with the estimated ones.
col <- c("red", "blue", "green3")
profiles.plot(samples[c("lambda", "mu", "r")], col.line=col, las=1,
abline(v=0, lty=2)
abline(v=c(.1, .03, .07), col=col)

## Sample the phylogeny to include 20 of the species, and run the
## likelihood search assuming random sampling:
phy2 <- drop.tip(phy, sample(25, 5))
lik2 <-, sampling.f=20/25)
fit2 <- find.mle(lik2, c(.1, .03))

## The ODE based version gives comparable results.  However, it is
## about 55x slower.
lik.ode <-, control=list(method="ode"))
all.equal(lik.ode(coef(fit)), lik(coef(fit)), tolerance=2e-7)

[Package diversitree version 0.9-16 Index]