backbone {backbone}R Documentation

backbone: Extracts the Backbone from Graphs


Provides methods for extracting from an unweighted and sparse subgraph (i.e., a backbone) that contains only the most "important" edges in a weighted bipartite projection, a non-projection weighted network, or an unweighted network.

Available backbone extraction functions include:

The package also includes some utility functions:

For additional documentation and background on the package functions, see vignette("backbone"). For updates, papers, presentations, and other backbone news, please see


Neal, Z. P. (2022). backbone: An R Package to Extract Network Backbones. PLOS ONE, 17, e0269137. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269137

[Package backbone version 2.1.0 Index]