windprofile {bReeze}R Documentation

Calculate wind profile


Calculates a wind profile, using on the Hellman exponential law.


windprofile(mast, v.set, dir.set, num.sectors=12, 
  method=c("hellman", "loglm", "fixed"), alpha=NULL, 
  subset, digits=3, print=TRUE)
pro(mast, v.set, dir.set, num.sectors=12, 
  method=c("hellman", "loglm", "fixed"), alpha=NULL, 
  subset, digits=3, print=TRUE)

## S3 method for class 'windprofile'
plot(x, sector, measured=TRUE, ...)



Met mast object created by mast.


Set(s) to be used for wind speed, specified as set number or set name. The first given dataset is used as reference height. If one single dataset is given, the same Hellman exponent is assumed for each sector and can be specified using alpha (see Details for empirical values). If two or more datasets are given, the Hellman exponent is calculated for each sector. If more than two datasets are given, currently only the first two datasets are used.


Set to be used for wind direction, specified as set number or set name.


Number of wind direction sectors as integer value greater 1. Default is 12.


Method to be used for the calculation. One of "hellman", "loglm" or "fixed" (see Details section). Optional argument: "fixed" is used if v.set is a single dataset, "hellman" is used if v.set specifies two, "loglm" if v.set specifies three datasets.


Hellman exponent – one general exponent or a vector of exponents (one per sector). Optional and only used if the choosen method is "fixed". If alpha is NULL (the default), 0.2 is used as default.


Optional start and end time stamp for a data subset, as string vector c(start, end). The time stamps format shall follow the rules of ISO 8601 international standard, e.g. "2012-08-08 22:55:00".


Number of decimal places to be used for results as numeric value. Default is 3.


If TRUE (the default), results are printed directly.


Wind profile object created by profile.


Direction sector as integer (sector number) or string (sector code). If missing or NULL, all sectors are plotted. For plotting the general profile only use "all".


If TRUE (the default), measured sector mean wind speeds are added to the plot.


Arguments to be passed to methods. For optional graphical parameters see below.


The average wind speed as a function of height above ground gives a site's wind profile. For reasons of cost-efficiency met mast heights are usually below hub heights of modern wind turbines, thus measured wind speeds must be extrapolated by based wind profile. A common method is the Hellman exponential law or power law ("hellman"), defined as:

v2/v1 = (h2/h1)^alpha

where v2 is the wind speed at height h2, v1 is the wind speed at height h1 and alpha is the Hellman exponent (also power law exponent or shear exponent).

To calculate alpha, profile uses the inverted equation as:

alpha = log(v2/v1) / log(h2/h1)

If data is available for two or more heights, a log-linear model fit can be used for the computation of alpha. In this case the data is logarithmized to allow for fitting a linear model. The models slope is then used as alpha. Please note: depending on the data this method might result in negative alpha.

If the wind speed is only known for one height, alpha must be estimated. alpha depends on various issues, including roughness and terrain of the site. Some empirical values for temperate climates are:

Site conditions α
Open water 0.08--0.15
Flat terrain, open land cover 0.16--0.22
Complex terrain with mixed or continuous forest 0.25--0.40
Exposed ridgetops, open land cover 0.10--0.14
Sloping terrain with drainage flows 0.10--0.15


Returns a list of:


Data frame containing alpha and reference wind speed for each direction sector.


Reference height of the profile (the height of the first given dataset in v.set).

Optional graphical parameters

The following graphical parameters can optionally be added to customize the plot:


Christian Graul


Bañuelos-Ruedas, F., Camacho, C.A., Rios-Marcuello, S. (2011) Methodologies Used in the Extrapolation of Wind Speed Data at Different Heights and Its Impact in the Wind Energy Resource Assessment in a Region. In: Gastón O. Suvire (Ed.), Wind Farm – Technical Regulations, Potential Estimation and Siting Assessment, Chapter 4, p. 97–114, InTech

Brower, M., Marcus, M., Taylor, M., Bernadett, D., Filippelli, M., Beaucage, P., Hale, E., Elsholz, K., Doane, J., Eberhard, M., Tensen, J., Ryan, D. (2010) Wind Resource Assessment Handbook.

International Electrotechnical Commission (2005) IEC 61400-12 Wind Turbines – Part 12-1: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines. IEC Standard

See Also



## Not run: 
## load and prepare data
data("winddata", package="bReeze")
set40 <- set(height=40, v.avg=winddata[,2], dir.avg=winddata[,14])
set30 <- set(height=30, v.avg=winddata[,6], dir.avg=winddata[,16])
set20 <- set(height=20, v.avg=winddata[,10], v.std=winddata[,13])
ts <- timestamp(timestamp=winddata[,1])
neubuerg <- mast(timestamp=ts, set40, set30, set20)
neubuerg <- clean(mast=neubuerg)

## calculate profile
# create profile based on one height
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=1, dir.set=1)	# default alpha=0.2
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=1, dir.set=1, alpha=0.15)

# calculate profile based on two heights
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,2), dir.set=1)
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,3), dir.set=1)
# same as above
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c("set1", "set3"), dir.set="set1")

# calculate profile based on three heights
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,2,3), dir.set=1)

# change the method used for computation
# note: negative alphas!
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,2), dir.set=1, method="loglm")

# change number of direction sectors
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,2), dir.set=1, num.sectors=8)

# data subsets
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=1, dir.set=1, 
  subset=c("2009-12-01 00:00:00", "2009-12-31 23:50:00"))
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1,2), dir.set=1, 
  subset=c("2010-01-01 00:00:00", NA)) # just 'start' time stamp
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=c(1:3), dir.set=1, 
  subset=c(NA, "2009-12-31 23:50:00")) # just 'end' time stamp

# change number of digits and hide results
windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=1, dir.set=1, digits=2)
neubuerg.wp <- windprofile(mast=neubuerg, v.set=1, dir.set=1, print=FALSE)

## plot profile objects
plot(neubuerg.wp)  # default
plot(neubuerg.wp, measured=FALSE)  # omit 'measured' points

# plot only one sector
plot(neubuerg.wp, sector=3)	# ENE by sector number
plot(neubuerg.wp, sector="ene")	# ENE by sector code
plot(neubuerg.wp, sector="all")	# general profile

# customize plot
plot(neubuerg.wp, bty="l", bty.leg="o", cex.axis=0.8, 
  cex.lab=0.9, cex.leg=0.7, col=rainbow(13), col.axis=gray(0.2),, col.lab=gray(0.2), col.leg=gray(0.2), 
  col.ticks=gray(0.2), las=0, lty=c(rep(3,12),1), 
  lwd=c(rep(1.2,12), 1.7), mar=c(3,3,0.5,0.5), mgp=c(2,0.7,0), 
  pos.leg="right", xlab="velocity [m/s]", ylab="height [m]", 
  xlim=c(0,11), ylim=c(0,150), x.intersp=1, y.intersp=1.2)

## End(Not run)

[Package bReeze version 0.4-3 Index]