matching {anticlust}R Documentation

Matching

Description

Conduct K-partite or unrestricted (minimum distance) matching to find pairs or groups of similar elements. By default, finding matches is based on the Euclidean distance between data points, but a custom dissimilarity measure can also be employed.

Usage

matching(
  x,
  p = 2,
  match_between = NULL,
  match_within = NULL,
  match_extreme_first = TRUE,
  target_group = NULL,
  sort_output = TRUE
)

Arguments

x

The data input. Can be one of two structures: (1) A feature matrix where rows correspond to elements and columns correspond to variables (a single numeric variable can be passed as a vector). (2) An N x N matrix dissimilarity matrix; can be an object of class dist (e.g., returned by dist or as.dist) or a matrix where the entries of the upper and lower triangular matrix represent pairwise dissimilarities.

p

The size of the groups; the default is 2, in which case the function returns pairs.

match_between

An optional vector, data.frame or matrix representing one or several categorical constraints. If passed, the argument p is ignored and matches are sought between elements of different categories.

match_within

An optional vector, data.frame or matrix representing one or several categorical constraints. If passed, matches are sought between elements of the same category.

match_extreme_first

Logical: Determines if matches are first sought for extreme elements first or for central elements. Defaults to TRUE.

target_group

Currently, the options "none", smallest" and "diverse" are supported. See Details.

sort_output

Boolean. If TRUE (default), the output clusters are sorted by similarity. See Details.

Details

If the data input x is a feature matrix, matching is based on the Euclidean distance between data points. If the argument x is a dissimilarity matrix, matching is based on the user-specified dissimilarities. To find matches, the algorithm proceeds by selecting a target element and then searching its nearest neighbours. Critical to the behaviour or the algorithm is the order in which target elements are selected. By default, the most extreme elements are selected first, i.e., elements with the highest distance to the centroid of the data set (see balanced_clustering that relies on the same algorithm). Set the argument match_extreme_first to FALSE, to enforce that elements close to the centroid are first selected as targets.

If the argument match_between is passed and the groups specified via this argument are of different size, target elements are selected from the smallest group by default (because in this group, all elements can be matched). However, it is also possible to specify how matches are selected through the option target_group. When specifying "none", matches are always selected from extreme elements, irregardless of the group sizes (or from central elements first if match_extreme_first = FALSE). With option "smallest", matches are selected from the smallest group. With option "diverse", matches are selected from the most heterogenous group according to the sum of pairwise distances within groups.

The output is an integer vector encoding which elements have been matched. The grouping numbers are sorted by similarity. That is, elements with the grouping number »1« have the highest intra-group similarity, followed by 2 etc (groups having the same similarity index are still assigned a different grouping number, though). Similarity is measured as the sum of pairwise (Euclidean) distances within groups (see diversity_objective). To prevent sorting by similarity (this is some extra computational burden), set sort_output = FALSE. Some unmatched elements may be NA. This happens if it is not possible to evenly split the item pool evenly into groups of size p or if the categories described by the argument match_between are of different size.

Value

An integer vector encoding the matches. See Details for more information.

Note

It is possible to specify grouping restrictions via match_between and match_within at the same time.

Author(s)

Martin Papenberg martin.papenberg@hhu.de

Examples


# Find triplets
N <- 120
lds <- data.frame(f1 = rnorm(N), f2 = rnorm(N))
triplets <- matching(lds, p = 3)
plot_clusters(
  lds,
  clusters = triplets,
  within_connection = TRUE
)

# Bipartite matching with unequal-sized groups:
# Only selects matches for some elements
N <- 100
data <- matrix(rnorm(N), ncol = 1)
groups <- sample(1:2, size = N, replace = TRUE, prob = c(0.8, 0.2))
matched <- matching(data[, 1], match_between = groups)
plot_clusters(
  cbind(groups, data), 
  clusters = matched, 
  within_connection = TRUE
)

# Match objects from the same category only
matched <- matching(
  schaper2019[, 3:6], 
  p = 3, 
  match_within = schaper2019$room
)
head(table(matched, schaper2019$room))

# Match between different plant species in the »iris« data set
species <- iris$Species != "versicolor"
matched <- matching(
  iris[species, 1], 
  match_between = iris[species, 5]
)
# Adjust `match_extreme_first` argument
matched2 <- matching(
  iris[species, 1], 
  match_between = iris[species, 5],
  match_extreme_first = FALSE
)
# Plot the matching results
user_par <- par("mfrow")
par(mfrow = c(1, 2))
data <- data.frame(
  Species = as.numeric(iris[species, 5]),
  Sepal.Length = iris[species, 1]
)
plot_clusters(
  data,
  clusters = matched,
  within_connection = TRUE,
  main = "Extreme elements matched first"
)
plot_clusters(
  data,
  clusters = matched2,
  within_connection = TRUE,
  main = "Central elements matched first"
)
par(mfrow = user_par)



[Package anticlust version 0.6.0 Index]