evopca {adiv}R Documentation

Evolutionary Principal Component analyses

Description

The functions evopcachord and evopcahellinger perform two adaptations of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the analysis of phylogenetic diversity patterns across species communities: the evolutionary PCA based on Chord distance (evoPCAChord) and the evolutionary PCA based on Hellinger distance (evoPCAHellinger) (Pavoine 2016).

Usage

evopcachord(phyl, comm, option = c("centred", "decentred"), 
w = c("evoab", "even", "speciesab"), scannf = TRUE, 
nf = 2, abundance = TRUE)

evopcahellinger(phyl, comm, option = c("centred", "decentred"),
w = c("evoab", "even", "speciesab"), scannf = TRUE, 
nf = 2, abundance = TRUE)

Arguments

phyl

an object inheriting the class phylo (see package ape), phylo4 (see package phylobase) or hclust. To ease the interpretation of factorial maps, it is advised to use a rooted phylogenetic tree and to add labels to the nodes of the phylogeny. For example, If your phylogeny is named 'tree' and is of class phylo, you can root the phylogeny using tree$root.edge <- 0 and you can name the nodes with the following command: tree$node.label <- paste("n", 1:tree$Nnode, sep=""). Use plot(tree, show.node.label=TRUE) to see the result. If it is rooted and of class phylo4, you can use: nodeLabels(tree) <- paste("n", 1:nNodes(tree), sep="").

comm

a data frame or a matrix typically with communities as rows, species as columns and presence/absence (1/0) or an index of abundance as entries. Species should be labeled as in the phylogenetic tree where they are the tips.

option

a string: either "centered" or "decentered". If several strings are given, only the first one is used. See details.

w

a string: either "evoab", "even", or "speciesab". If several strings are given, only the first one is used. See details.

scannf

a logical value indicating whether the screeplot (eigenvalues) should be displayed for choosing the number of axes to be kept.

nf

if scannf is FALSE, an integer indicating the number of axes to be kept.

abundance

a logical value. If FALSE, only the presences/absences of the evolutionary units in communities are considered.

Details

Let L_k be the length of branch k in the phylogenetic tree (out of K branches); a_jk the sum of abundances, in community j, for all species descending from branch k; w_j a positive weight attributed to community j (the definition for w_j is flexible with the only requirement that sum_j w_j=1); a_j+=sum_k L_k a_jk; a_+k=sum_j a_jk; a_++=sum_j sum_k L_k a_jk.

The weights of the communities (argument w) can be "even" (even weights, i.e. relative abundances are considered for evolutionary units), "evoab" (proportional to the summed abundances of all evolutionary units, i.e. absolute abundances are considered for evolutionary units), or "speciesab" (proportional to the summed abundances of all species). Note that if the phylogenetic tree is ultrametric (the distance from any species to the root is constant), then options "evoab" and "speciesab" are equivalent.

In evopcahellinger, as recommended by Rao (1995), the vector used to centre matrix (√{a_jk/a_j+})_j,k in PCA can be defined as

(sum_j w_j √{a_jk/a_j+})_k

(ordinary weighted mean, option "centered") or as

(√{(sum_j w_j a_jk)/(sum_k L_k sum_j w_j a_jk)})_k

(option "decentered"); see Pavoine (2016) for an introduction of all ordination approaches.

Similarly, in evopcachord, the vector used to centre matrix (a_jk/√{sum_k a_jk^2})_j,k can be defined as

(sum_j w_j a_jk/√{sum_k a_jk^2})_k

(ordinary weighted mean, option "centered") or as

((sum_j w_j a_jk)/√{sum_k L_k (sum_j w_j a_jk)^2})_k

(option "decentered").

Value

evopcachord and evopcahellinger both return an object of class evopca and of class dudi (see package ade4). Graphical tools are associated with class dudi in packages ade4 and adegraphics (see section "Examples" below).

The returned object contains the following components:

tab

a data frame with n rows and p columns, with communities as rows and nodes of the phylogeny as columns. Internal data frame used by the algorithm;

cw

weights attributed to the nodes of the phylogeny, a vector with p components;

lw

weights attributed to the communities, a vector with n components;

eig

vector of eigenvalues;

rank

integer, number of axes;

nf

integer, number of kept axes;

c1

normed scores for the nodes of the phylogeny, data frame with p rows and nf columns;

l1

normed scores for the communities, data frame with n rows and nf columns;

co

scores for the nodes of the phylogeny, data frame with p rows and nf columns;

li

scores for the communities, data frame with n rows and nf columns;

call

the original call.

If X is an object of class evopca, then attributes(X)$phy contains the phylogenetic tree (of class phylo) with names for internal nodes.

Author(s)

Sandrine Pavoine sandrine.pavoine@mnhn.fr

References

Pavoine, S. (2016) A guide through a family of phylogenetic dissimilarity measures among sites. Oikos, 125, 1719–1732.

Rao, C.R. (1995) A review of canonical coordinates and an alternative to correspondence analysis using Hellinger distance. Questiio, 19, 23–63.

See Also

evoCA, evoNSCA, evodiss

Examples

## Not run: 
if(require(ade4) && require(ape) && require(adegraphics)){
O <- adegpar()$plabels$optim
adegpar("plabels.optim" = TRUE)

data(batcomm)
ab <- batcomm$ab
phy <- read.tree(text=batcomm$tre)
plot(phy, show.node=TRUE)

evopcaHbat <- evopcahellinger(phy, ab, scan=FALSE, nf=3)
dist(evopcaHbat$li)
evodiss(phy, ab, "Hellinger")

evopcaHbat$eig/sum(evopcaHbat$eig)
s.label(evopcaHbat$li)
s.label(evopcaHbat$co)
s.arrow(evopcaHbat$co)
inertia.dudi(evopcaHbat, row=TRUE)$row.abs
inertia.dudi(evopcaHbat, col=TRUE)$col.abs

evopcaCbat <- evopcachord(phy, ab, scan=FALSE, nf=3)
dist(evopcaCbat$li)
evodiss(phy, ab, "Chord")

evopcaCbat$eig/sum(evopcaCbat$eig)
s.label(evopcaCbat$li)
s.label(evopcaCbat$co)
s.arrow(evopcaCbat$co)
inertia.dudi(evopcaCbat, row=TRUE)$row.abs
inertia.dudi(evopcaCbat, col=TRUE)$col.abs

adegpar("plabels.optim" = O)
}

## End(Not run)

[Package adiv version 2.1.1 Index]