Impute.coin {COINr}R Documentation

Impute a data set in a coin


This imputes any NAs in the data set specified by dset by invoking the function f_i and any optional arguments f_i_para on each column at a time (if impute_by = "column"), or on each row at a time (if impute_by = "row"), or by passing the entire data frame to f_i if impute_by = "df".


## S3 method for class 'coin'
  f_i = NULL,
  f_i_para = NULL,
  impute_by = "column",
  use_group = NULL,
  group_level = NULL,
  normalise_first = NULL,
  out2 = "coin",
  write_to = NULL,
  disable = FALSE,
  warn_on_NAs = TRUE,



A coin class object


The name of the data set to apply the function to, which should be accessible in .$Data.


An imputation function. See details.


Further arguments to pass to f_i, other than x. See details.


Specifies how to impute: if "column", passes each column (indicator) separately as a numerical vector to f_i; if "row", passes each row separately; and if "df" passes the entire data set (data frame) to f_i. The function called by f_i should be compatible with the type of data passed to it.


Optional grouping variable name to pass to imputation function if this supports group imputation.


A level of the framework to use for grouping indicators. This is only relevant if impute_by = "row" or "df". In that case, indicators will be split into their groups at the level specified by group_level, and imputation will be performed across rows of the group, rather than the whole data set. This can make more sense because indicators within a group are likely to be more similar.


Logical: if TRUE, each column is normalised using a min-max operation before imputation. By default this is FALSE unless impute_by = "row". See details.


Either "coin" to return normalised data set back to the coin, or df to simply return a data frame.


Optional character string for naming the data set in the coin. Data will be written to .$Data[[write_to]]. Default is write_to == "Imputed".


Logical: if TRUE will disable imputation completely and write the unaltered data set. This option is mainly useful in sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (to test the effect of turning imputation on/off).


Logical: if TRUE will issue a warning if there are any NAs detected in the data frame after imputation has been applied. Set FALSE to suppress these warnings.


arguments passed to or from other methods.


Clearly, the function f_i needs to be able to accept with the data class passed to it - if impute_by is "row" or "column" this will be a numeric vector, or if "df" it will be a data frame. Moreover, this function should return a vector or data frame identical to the vector/data frame passed to it except for NA values, which can be replaced. The function f_i is not required to replace all NA values.

COINr has several built-in imputation functions of the form ⁠i_*()⁠ for vectors which can be called by Impute(). See the online documentation for more details.

When imputing row-wise, prior normalisation of the data is recommended. This is because imputation will use e.g. the mean of the unit values over all indicators (columns). If the indicators are on very different scales, the result will likely make no sense. If the indicators are normalised first, more sensible results can be obtained. There are two options to pre-normalise: first is by setting normalise_first = TRUE - this is anyway the default if impute_by = "row". In this case, you also need to supply a vector of directions. The data will then be normalised using a min-max approach before imputation, followed by the inverse operation to return the data to the original scales.

Another approach which gives more control is to simply run Normalise() first, and work with the normalised data from that point onwards. In that case it is better to set normalise_first = FALSE, since by default if impute_by = "row" it will be set to TRUE.

Checks are made on the format of the data returned by imputation functions, to ensure the type and that non-NA values have not been inadvertently altered. This latter check is allowed a degree of tolerance for numerical precision, controlled by the sfigs argument. This is because if the data frame is normalised, and/or depending on the imputation function, there may be a very small differences. By default sfigs = 9, meaning that the non-NA values pre and post-imputation are compared to 9 significant figures.

See also documentation for and Impute.numeric() which are called by this function.


An updated coin with imputed data set at .$Data[[write_to]]


#' # build coin
coin <- build_example_coin(up_to = "new_coin")

# impute raw data set using population groups
# output to data frame directly
Impute(coin, dset = "Raw", f_i = "i_mean_grp",
               use_group = "Pop_group", out2 = "df")

[Package COINr version 1.1.14 Index]