pNull {Bolstad2} R Documentation

## Test a one sided hypothesis from a numerically specified posterior CDF or from a sample from the posterior

### Description

Calculates the probability of a one sided null hypothesis from a numerically calculated posterior CDF or from a sample from the posterior.

### Usage

pNull(theta0, theta, cdf = NULL, type = 'upper')


### Arguments

 theta0 the hypothesized value, i.e. H0: theta <= theta0 theta a sample of values from the posterior density, or, if cdf is not NULL then the values over which the the posterior CDF is specified cdf the values of the CDF, F(θ) = \int_{-∞}^{θ}f(t).df where f(t) is the PDF. type the type of probability to return, 'lower' = Pr(theta <= theta0) or 'upper' = Pr(theta >= theta0). It is sufficient to use 'l' or 'u'

### Details

This function uses linear interpolation to calculate bounds for points that may not be specified by CDF

### Value

a list containing the element prob which will be the upper or lower tail probability depending on type

### Examples

## commands for calculating a numerical posterior CDF.
## In this example, the likelihood is proportional to
## \eqn{\theta^{3/2}\times \exp(-\theta/4)} and a N(6, 9) prior is used.
theta <- seq(from = 0.001, to = 40, by = 0.001)
prior <- dnorm(theta,6,3)
ppnLike <- theta^1.5*exp(-theta/4)
ppnPost <- prior*ppnLike
scaleFactor <- sintegral(theta, ppnPost)$int posterior <- ppnPost/scaleFactor cdf <- sintegral(theta, posterior)$y
pNull(15, theta, cdf)

## Use an inverse method to take a random sample of size 1000
## from the posterior
suppressWarnings(Finv <- approxfun(cdf, theta))
thetaSample<-Finv(runif(1000))
pNull(15, thetaSample)


[Package Bolstad2 version 1.0-28 Index]