bibstyle {tools}R Documentation

Select or Define a Bibliography Style


This function defines and registers styles for rendering bibentry objects into ‘Rd’ format, for later conversion to text, HTML, etc.


bibstyle(style, envir, ..., .init = FALSE, .default = TRUE)
getBibstyle(all = FALSE)



A character string naming the style.


(optional) An environment holding the functions to implement the style.


Named arguments to add to the environment.


Whether to initialize the environment from the default style "JSS".


Whether to set the specified style as the default style.


Whether to return the names of all registered styles.


Rendering of bibentry objects may be done using routines modelled after those used by BibTeX. This function allows environments to be created and manipulated to contain those routines.

There are two ways to create a new style environment. The easiest is to set .init = TRUE, in which case the environment will be initialized with a copy of the default "JSS" environment. (This style is modelled after the ‘jss.bst’ style used by the Journal of Statistical Software.) Alternatively, the envir argument can be used to specify a completely new style environment.

To find the name of the default style, use getBibstyle(). To retrieve an existing style without setting it as the default, use bibstyle(style, .default = FALSE). To modify an existing style, specify style and some named entries via .... (Modifying the default "JSS" style is discouraged.) Setting style to NULL or leaving it missing will retrieve the default style, but modifications will not be allowed.

At a minimum, the environment should contain routines to render each of the 12 types of bibliographic entry supported by bibentry as well as several other routines described below. The former must be named formatArticle, formatBook, formatInbook, formatIncollection, formatInProceedings, formatManual, formatMastersthesis, formatMisc, formatPhdthesis, formatProceedings, formatTechreport and formatUnpublished. Each of these takes one argument, a single unclass'ed entry from the bibentry vector passed to the renderer, and should produce a single element character vector (possibly containing newlines).

The other routines are as follows. sortKeys, a function to produce a sort key to sort the entries, is passed the original bibentry vector and should produce a sortable vector of the same length to define the sort order. Finally, the optional function cite should have the same argument list as utils::cite, and should produce a citation to be used in text.

The format method for "bibentry" objects adds a field named ".index" to each entry after sorting and before formatting. This is a 1-based index within the complete object that can be used in styles that require numbering. Although the "JSS" style doesn't use numbers, it includes a fmtPrefix() stub function that may be used to display them. See the example below.


bibstyle returns the environment which has been selected or created.

getBibstyle returns the name of the default style, or all style names.


Duncan Murdoch

See Also



refs <-
c(bibentry(bibtype = "manual",
    title = "R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing",
    author = person("R Core Team"),
    organization = "R Foundation for Statistical Computing",
    address = "Vienna, Austria",
    year = 2013,
    url = ""),
  bibentry(bibtype = "article",
    author = c(person(c("George", "E.", "P."), "Box"),
               person(c("David",  "R."),      "Cox")),
    year = 1964,
    title = "An Analysis of Transformations",
    journal = "Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B",
    volume = 26, number = 2, pages = "211--243",
    doi = "10.1111/j.2517-6161.1964.tb00553.x"))

bibstyle("unsorted", sortKeys = function(refs) seq_along(refs),
    fmtPrefix = function(paper) paste0("[", paper$.index, "]"),
       .init = TRUE)
print(refs, .bibstyle = "unsorted")

[Package tools version 4.4.1 Index]