all {base} | R Documentation |

## Are All Values True?

### Description

Given a set of logical vectors, are all of the values true?

### Usage

```
all(..., na.rm = FALSE)
```

### Arguments

`...` |
zero or more logical vectors. Other objects of zero length are ignored, and the rest are coerced to logical ignoring any class. |

`na.rm` |
logical. If true |

### Details

This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it
directly or via the `Summary`

group generic.
For this to work properly, the arguments `...`

should be
unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.

Coercion of types other than integer (raw, double, complex, character, list) gives a warning as this is often unintentional.

This is a primitive function.

### Value

The value is a logical vector of length one.

Let `x`

denote the concatenation of all the logical vectors in
`...`

(after coercion), after removing `NA`

s if requested by
`na.rm = TRUE`

.

The value returned is `TRUE`

if all of the values in `x`

are
`TRUE`

(including if there are no values), and `FALSE`

if at
least one of the values in `x`

is `FALSE`

. Otherwise the
value is `NA`

(which can only occur if `na.rm = FALSE`

and
`...`

contains no `FALSE`

values and at least one
`NA`

value).

### S4 methods

This is part of the S4 `Summary`

group generic. Methods for it must use the signature
`x, ..., na.rm`

.

### Note

That `all(logical(0))`

is true is a useful convention:
it ensures that

all(all(x), all(y)) == all(x, y)

even if `x`

has length zero.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

### See Also

`any`

, the ‘complement’ of `all`

, and
`stopifnot(*)`

which is an `all(*)`

‘insurance’.

### Examples

```
range(x <- sort(round(stats::rnorm(10) - 1.2, 1)))
if(all(x < 0)) cat("all x values are negative\n")
all(logical(0)) # true, as all zero of the elements are true.
```

*base*version 4.4.0 Index]