as_utf8 {utf8}R Documentation

UTF-8 Character Encoding

Description

UTF-8 text encoding and validation.

Usage

as_utf8(x, normalize = FALSE)

utf8_valid(x)

Arguments

x

character object.

normalize

a logical value indicating whether to convert to Unicode composed normal form (NFC).

Details

as_utf8 converts a character object from its declared encoding to a valid UTF-8 character object, or throws an error if no conversion is possible. If normalize = TRUE, then the text gets transformed to Unicode composed normal form (NFC) after conversion to UTF-8.

utf8_valid tests whether the elements of a character object can be translated to valid UTF-8 strings.

Value

For as_utf8, the result is a character object with the same attributes as x but with Encoding set to "UTF-8".

For utf8_valid a logical object with the same names, dim, and dimnames as x.

See Also

utf8_normalize, iconv.

Examples

# the second element is encoded in latin-1, but declared as UTF-8
x <- c("fa\u00E7ile", "fa\xE7ile", "fa\xC3\xA7ile")
Encoding(x) <- c("UTF-8", "UTF-8", "bytes")

# attempt to convert to UTF-8 (fails)
## Not run: as_utf8(x)

y <- x
Encoding(y[2]) <- "latin1" # mark the correct encoding
as_utf8(y) # succeeds

# test for valid UTF-8
utf8_valid(x)

[Package utf8 version 1.2.2 Index]