residuals.lme {nlme} | R Documentation |

## Extract lme Residuals

### Description

The residuals at level `i`

are obtained by subtracting the fitted
levels at that level from the response vector (and dividing
by the estimated within-group standard error, if
`type="pearson"`

). The fitted values at level `i`

are obtained
by adding together the population fitted values (based only on the
fixed effects estimates) and the estimated contributions of the random
effects to the fitted values at grouping levels less or equal to
`i`

.

### Usage

```
## S3 method for class 'lme'
residuals(object, level = Q,
type = c("response", "pearson", "normalized"), asList = FALSE, ...)
```

### Arguments

`object` |
an object inheriting from class |

`level` |
an optional integer vector giving the level(s) of grouping
to be used in extracting the residuals from |

`type` |
an optional character string specifying the type of
residuals to be used. If |

`asList` |
an optional logical value. If |

`...` |
some methods for this generic require additional arguments. None are used in this method. |

### Value

if a single level of grouping is specified in `level`

, the
returned value is either a list with the residuals split by groups
(`asList = TRUE`

) or a vector with the residuals
(`asList = FALSE`

); else, when multiple grouping levels are
specified in `level`

, the returned object is a data frame with
columns given by the residuals at different levels and the grouping
factors. For a vector or data frame result the `naresid`

method is applied.

### Author(s)

JosÃ© Pinheiro and Douglas Bates bates@stat.wisc.edu

### See Also

### Examples

```
fm1 <- lme(distance ~ age + Sex, data = Orthodont, random = ~ 1)
head(residuals(fm1, level = 0:1))
summary(residuals(fm1) /
residuals(fm1, type = "p")) # constant scaling factor 1.432
```

*nlme*version 3.1-165 Index]