sample_forestfire {igraph}R Documentation

Forest Fire Network Model


This is a growing network model, which resembles of how the forest fire spreads by igniting trees close by.


sample_forestfire(nodes, fw.prob, bw.factor = 1, ambs = 1, directed = TRUE)



The number of vertices in the graph.


The forward burning probability, see details below.


The backward burning ratio. The backward burning probability is calculated as bw.factor*fw.prob.


The number of ambassador vertices.


Logical scalar, whether to create a directed graph.


The forest fire model intends to reproduce the following network characteristics, observed in real networks:

The network is generated in the following way. One vertex is added at a time. This vertex connects to (cites) ambs vertices already present in the network, chosen uniformly random. Now, for each cited vertex v we do the following procedure:

  1. We generate two random number, x and y, that are geometrically distributed with means p/(1-p) and rp(1-rp). (p is fw.prob, r is bw.factor.) The new vertex cites x outgoing neighbors and y incoming neighbors of v, from those which are not yet cited by the new vertex. If there are less than x or y such vertices available then we cite all of them.

  2. The same procedure is applied to all the newly cited vertices.


A simple graph, possibly directed if the directed argument is TRUE.


The version of the model in the published paper is incorrect in the sense that it cannot generate the kind of graphs the authors claim. A corrected version is available from, our implementation is based on this.


Gabor Csardi


Jure Leskovec, Jon Kleinberg and Christos Faloutsos. Graphs over time: densification laws, shrinking diameters and possible explanations. KDD '05: Proceeding of the eleventh ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery in data mining, 177–187, 2005.

See Also for the basic preferential attachment model.


g <- sample_forestfire(10000, fw.prob=0.37, bw.factor=0.32/0.37)
dd1 <- degree_distribution(g, mode="in")
dd2 <- degree_distribution(g, mode="out")
plot(seq(along.with=dd1)-1, dd1, log="xy")
points(seq(along.with=dd2)-1, dd2, col=2, pch=2)

[Package igraph version 1.3.5 Index]