epi.sscc {epiR} | R Documentation |

Calculates the sample size, power or minimum detectable odds ratio for an unmatched or matched case-control study.

epi.sscc(OR, p1 = NA, p0, n, power, r = 1, rho.cc = 0, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "unmatched", fleiss = FALSE)

`OR` |
scalar, the expected study odds ratio. |

`p1` |
scalar, the prevalence of exposure amongst the cases. |

`p0` |
scalar, the prevalence of exposure amongst the controls. |

`n` |
scalar, the total number of subjects in the study (i.e. the number of cases plus the number of controls). |

`power` |
scalar, the required study power. |

`r` |
scalar, the number in the control group divided by the number in the case group. |

`rho.cc` |
scalar, the correlation between case and control exposures for matched pairs. Ignored when |

`design` |
scalar, the design effect. |

`sided.test` |
use a one- or two-sided test? Use a two-sided test if you wish to evaluate whether or not the odds of exposure in cases is greater than or less than the odds of exposure in controls. Use a one-sided test to evaluate whether or not the odds of exposure in cases is greater than the odds of exposure in controls. |

`nfractional` |
logical, return fractional sample size. |

`conf.level` |
scalar, the level of confidence in the computed result. |

`method` |
a character string defining the method to be used. Options are |

`fleiss` |
logical, indicating whether or not the Fleiss correction should be applied. This argument is ignored when |

This function implements the methodology described by Dupont (1988). A detailed description of sample size calculations for case-control studies (with numerous worked examples, many of them reproduced below) is provided by Woodward (2005), pp. 381 to 426.

A value for `p1`

is only required if Fleiss correction is used. For this reason the default for `p1`

is set to `NA`

.

A list containing the following:

`n.total` |
the total number of subjects required to estimate the specified odds ratio at the desired level of confidence and power (i.e. the number of cases plus the number of controls). |

`n.case` |
the total number of case subjects required to estimate the specified odds ratio at the desired level of confidence and power. |

`n.control` |
the total number of control subjects required to estimate the specified odds ratio at the desired level of confidence and power. |

`power` |
the power of the study given the number of study subjects, the specified odds ratio and the desired level of confidence. |

`OR` |
the expected detectable odds ratio given the number of study subjects, the desired power and desired level of confidence. |

The power of a study is its ability to demonstrate the presence of an association, given that an association actually exists.

See the documentation for `epi.sscohortc`

for an example using the `design`

facility implemented in this function.

Dupont WD (1988) Power calculations for matched case-control studies. Biometrics 44: 1157 - 1168.

Fleiss JL (1981). Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. Wiley, New York.

Kelsey JL, Thompson WD, Evans AS (1986). Methods in Observational Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, London, pp. 254 - 284.

Woodward M (2005). Epidemiology Study Design and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC, New York, pp. 381 - 426.

## EXAMPLE 1 (from Woodward 2005 p. 412): ## A case-control study of the relationship between smoking and CHD is ## planned. A sample of men with newly diagnosed CHD will be compared for ## smoking status with a sample of controls. Assuming an equal number of ## cases and controls, how many study subject are required to detect an ## odds ratio of 2.0 with 0.90 power using a two-sided 0.05 test? Previous ## surveys have shown that around 0.30 of males without CHD are smokers. epi.sscc(OR = 2.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.30, n = NA, power = 0.90, r = 1, rho.cc = 0, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "unmatched", fleiss = FALSE) ## A total of 376 men need to be sampled: 188 cases and 188 controls. ## EXAMPLE 2 (from Woodward 2005 p. 414): ## Suppose we wish to determine the power to detect an odds ratio of 2.0 ## using a two-sided 0.05 test when 188 cases and 940 controls ## are available (that is, the ratio of controls to cases is 5:1). Assume ## the prevalence of smoking in males without CHD is 0.30. n <- 188 + 940 epi.sscc(OR = 2.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.30, n = n, power = NA, r = 5, rho.cc = 0, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "unmatched", fleiss = TRUE) ## The power of this study, with the given sample size allocation is 0.99. ## EXAMPLE 3: ## The following statement appeared in a study proposal to identify risk ## factors for campylobacteriosis in humans: ## `We will prospectively recruit 300 culture-confirmed Campylobacter cases ## reported under the Public Health Act. We will then recruit one control per ## case from general practices of the enrolled cases, using frequency matching ## by age and sex. With exposure levels of 10% (thought to be realistic ## given past foodborne disease case control studies) this sample size ## will provide 80% power to detect an odds ratio of 2 at the 5% alpha ## level.' ## Confirm the statement that 300 case subjects will provide 80% power in ## this study. epi.sscc(OR = 2.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.10, n = 600, power = NA, r = 1, rho.cc = 0.01, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "matched", fleiss = TRUE) ## If the true odds ratio for Campylobacter in exposed subjects relative to ## unexposed subjects is 2.0 we will be able to reject the null hypothesis ## that this odds ratio equals 1 with probability (power) 0.826. The Type I # error probability associated with this test of this null hypothesis is 0.05. ## EXAMPLE 4: ## We wish to conduct a case-control study to assess whether bladder cancer ## may be associated with past exposure to cigarette smoking. Cases will be ## patients with bladder cancer and controls will be patients hospitalised ## for injury. It is assumed that 20% of controls will be smokers or past ## smokers, and we wish to detect an odds ratio of 2 with power 90%. ## Three controls will be recruited for every case. How many subjects need ## to be enrolled in the study? epi.sscc(OR = 2.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.20, n = NA, power = 0.90, r = 3, rho.cc = 0, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "unmatched", fleiss = FALSE) ## A total of 620 subjects need to be enrolled in the study: 155 cases and ## 465 controls. ## An alternative is to conduct a matched case-control study rather than the ## unmatched design outlined above. One case will be matched to one control ## and the correlation between case and control exposures for matched pairs ## (rho) is estimated to be 0.01 (low). Using the same assumptions as those ## described above, how many study subjects will be required? epi.sscc(OR = 2.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.20, n = NA, power = 0.90, r = 1, rho.cc = 0.01, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "matched", fleiss = FALSE) ## A total of 456 subjects need to be enrolled in the study: 228 cases and ## 228 controls. ## EXAMPLE 5: ## Code to reproduce the isograph shown in Figure 2 in Dupont (1988): r <- 1 p0 = seq(from = 0.05, to = 0.95, length = 50) OR <- seq(from = 1.05, to = 6, length = 100) dat.df05 <- expand.grid(p0 = p0, OR = OR) dat.df05$n.total <- NA for(i in 1:nrow(dat.df05)){ dat.df05$n.total[i] <- epi.sscc(OR = dat.df05$OR[i], p1 = NA, p0 = dat.df05$p0[i], n = NA, power = 0.80, r = 1, rho.cc = 0, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "unmatched", fleiss = FALSE)$n.total } grid.n <- matrix(dat.df05$n.total, nrow = length(p0)) breaks <- c(22:30,32,34,36,40,45,50,55,60,70,80,90,100,125,150,175, 200,300,500,1000) par(mar = c(5,5,0,5), bty = "n") contour(x = p0, y = OR, z = log10(grid.n), add = FALSE, levels = log10(breaks), labels = breaks, xlim = c(0,1), ylim = c(1,6), las = 1, method = "flattest", xlab = 'Proportion of controls exposed', ylab = "Minimum OR to detect") ## Not run: ## The same plot using ggplot2: library(ggplot2); library(directlabels) p <- ggplot(data = dat.df05, aes(x = p0, y = OR, z = n.total)) + theme_bw() + geom_contour(aes(colour = ..level..), breaks = breaks) + scale_x_continuous(limits = c(0,1), name = "Proportion of controls exposed") + scale_y_continuous(limits = c(1,6), name = "Minimum OR to detect") print(direct.label(p, list("far.from.others.borders", "calc.boxes", "enlarge.box", hjust = 1, vjust = 1, box.color = NA, fill = "transparent", "draw.rects"))) ## End(Not run) ## EXAMPLE 6: ## From page 1164 of Dupont (1988). A matched case control study is to be ## carried out to quantify the association between exposure A and an outcome B. ## Assume the prevalence of exposure in controls is 0.60 and the ## correlation between case and control exposures for matched pairs (rho) is ## 0.20 (moderate). Assuming an equal number of cases and controls, how many ## subjects need to be enrolled into the study to detect an odds ratio of 3.0 ## with 0.80 power using a two-sided 0.05 test? epi.sscc(OR = 3.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.60, n = NA, power = 0.80, r = 1, rho.cc = 0.2, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "matched", fleiss = FALSE) ## A total of 162 subjects need to be enrolled in the study: 81 cases and ## 81 controls. ## How many cases and controls are required if we select three ## controls per case? epi.sscc(OR = 3.0, p1 = NA, p0 = 0.60, n = NA, power = 0.80, r = 3, rho.cc = 0.2, design = 1, sided.test = 2, nfractional = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95, method = "matched", fleiss = FALSE) ## A total of 204 subjects need to be enrolled in the study: 51 cases and ## 153 controls.

[Package *epiR* version 2.0.38 Index]