did2s {did2s} | R Documentation |

Calculate two-stage difference-in-differences following Gardner (2021)

```
did2s(
data,
yname,
first_stage,
second_stage,
treatment,
cluster_var,
weights = NULL,
bootstrap = FALSE,
n_bootstraps = 250,
return_bootstrap = FALSE,
verbose = TRUE
)
```

`data` |
The dataframe containing all the variables |

`yname` |
Outcome variable |

`first_stage` |
Fixed effects and other covariates you want to residualize
with in first stage.
Formula following |

`second_stage` |
Second stage, these should be the treatment indicator(s)
(e.g. treatment variable or event-study leads/lags).
Formula following |

`treatment` |
A variable that = 1 if treated, = 0 otherwise |

`cluster_var` |
What variable to cluster standard errors. This can be IDs or a higher aggregate level (state for example) |

`weights` |
Optional. Variable name for regression weights. |

`bootstrap` |
Optional. Should standard errors be calculated using bootstrap?
Default is |

`n_bootstraps` |
Optional. How many bootstraps to run.
Default is |

`return_bootstrap` |
Optional. Logical. Will return each bootstrap second-stage estimate to allow for manual use, e.g. percentile standard errors and empirical confidence intervals. |

`verbose` |
Optional. Logical. Should information about the two-stage
procedure be printed back to the user?
Default is |

`fixest`

object with adjusted standard errors
(either by formula or by bootstrap). All the methods from `fixest`

package
will work, including `fixest::esttable`

and
`fixest::coefplot`

Load example dataset which has two treatment groups and homogeneous treatment effects

# Load Example Dataset data("df_hom")

You can run a static TWFE fixed effect model for a simple treatment indicator

static <- did2s(df_hom, yname = "dep_var", treatment = "treat", cluster_var = "state", first_stage = ~ 0 | unit + year, second_stage = ~ i(treat, ref=FALSE)) #> Running Two-stage Difference-in-Differences #> • first stage formula `~ 0 | unit + year` #> • second stage formula `~ i(treat, ref = FALSE)` #> • The indicator variable that denotes when treatment is on is `treat` #> • Standard errors will be clustered by `state` fixest::esttable(static) #> static #> Dependent Var.: dep_var #> #> treat = TRUE 2.005*** (0.0202) #> _______________ _________________ #> S.E. type Custom #> Observations 46,500 #> R2 0.47520 #> Adj. R2 0.47520 #> --- #> Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

Or you can use relative-treatment indicators to estimate an event study estimate

es <- did2s(df_hom, yname = "dep_var", treatment = "treat", cluster_var = "state", first_stage = ~ 0 | unit + year, second_stage = ~ i(rel_year, ref=c(-1, Inf))) #> Running Two-stage Difference-in-Differences #> • first stage formula `~ 0 | unit + year` #> • second stage formula `~ i(rel_year, ref = c(-1, Inf))` #> • The indicator variable that denotes when treatment is on is `treat` #> • Standard errors will be clustered by `state` fixest::esttable(es) #> es #> Dependent Var.: dep_var #> #> rel_year = -20 0.0043 (0.0322) #> rel_year = -19 0.0222 (0.0296) #> rel_year = -18 -0.0358 (0.0308) #> rel_year = -17 0.0043 (0.0337) #> rel_year = -16 -0.0186 (0.0353) #> rel_year = -15 -0.0045 (0.0346) #> rel_year = -14 -0.0393 (0.0384) #> rel_year = -13 0.0453 (0.0323) #> rel_year = -12 0.0324 (0.0309) #> rel_year = -11 -0.0245 (0.0349) #> rel_year = -10 -0.0017 (0.0241) #> rel_year = -9 0.0155 (0.0242) #> rel_year = -8 -0.0073 (0.0210) #> rel_year = -7 -0.0513* (0.0202) #> rel_year = -6 0.0269 (0.0237) #> rel_year = -5 0.0136 (0.0237) #> rel_year = -4 0.0381. (0.0223) #> rel_year = -3 -0.0228 (0.0284) #> rel_year = -2 0.0041 (0.0228) #> rel_year = 0 1.971*** (0.0470) #> rel_year = 1 2.050*** (0.0466) #> rel_year = 2 2.033*** (0.0441) #> rel_year = 3 1.966*** (0.0400) #> rel_year = 4 1.965*** (0.0430) #> rel_year = 5 2.030*** (0.0456) #> rel_year = 6 2.040*** (0.0447) #> rel_year = 7 1.995*** (0.0370) #> rel_year = 8 2.019*** (0.0485) #> rel_year = 9 1.955*** (0.0468) #> rel_year = 10 1.950*** (0.0455) #> rel_year = 11 2.117*** (0.0664) #> rel_year = 12 2.132*** (0.0741) #> rel_year = 13 2.019*** (0.0640) #> rel_year = 14 2.013*** (0.0522) #> rel_year = 15 1.961*** (0.0605) #> rel_year = 16 1.916*** (0.0584) #> rel_year = 17 1.938*** (0.0607) #> rel_year = 18 2.070*** (0.0666) #> rel_year = 19 2.066*** (0.0609) #> rel_year = 20 1.964*** (0.0612) #> _______________ _________________ #> S.E. type Custom #> Observations 46,500 #> R2 0.47577 #> Adj. R2 0.47533 #> --- #> Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1

# plot rel_year coefficients and standard errors fixest::coefplot(es, keep = "rel_year::(.*)")

Here's an example using data from Cheng and Hoekstra (2013)

# Castle Data castle <- haven::read_dta("https://github.com/scunning1975/mixtape/raw/master/castle.dta") did2s( data = castle, yname = "l_homicide", first_stage = ~ 0 | sid + year, second_stage = ~ i(post, ref=0), treatment = "post", cluster_var = "state", weights = "popwt" ) #> Running Two-stage Difference-in-Differences #> • first stage formula `~ 0 | sid + year` #> • second stage formula `~ i(post, ref = 0)` #> • The indicator variable that denotes when treatment is on is `post` #> • Standard errors will be clustered by `state` #> OLS estimation, Dep. Var.: l_homicide #> Observations: 550 #> Standard-errors: Custom #> Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|) #> post::1 0.075142 0.03538 2.12387 0.034127 * #> --- #> Signif. codes: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1 #> RMSE: 263.4 Adj. R2: 0.052465

[Package *did2s* version 0.6.0 Index]