gcdg_zaf {childdevdata}R Documentation

South Africa 0.3-4.0 years: gcdg_zaf


A dataset with developmental scores at the item level for 2389 children measured at 4176 visits (rows) between ages 0.3-4.0 year, with up to four visits per child.




A data.frame with 4176 rows and 363 variables:

Name Type Label
ctrcd chr Country code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-3)
cohort chr Cohort name
cohortn chr Cohort number
subjid int Child number
agedays int Age (days)
sex chr Either "male" or "female"
gagebrth int Gestational age (days)
by1mdd037 0/1 Reaches for dangling ring
by1mdd038 0/1 Pushes car along
by1mdd039 0/1 Fingers hand in play
by1mdd040 0/1 Head follows dangling ring
by1mdd041 0/1 Head follows vanishing spoon
by1mdd042 0/1 Aware of strange situation
by1mdd043 0/1 Manipulates table edge slightly
by1mdd044 0/1 Carries ring to mouth
by1mdd045 0/1 inspects own hand
by1mdd046 0/1 Closes on dangling ring (check hand preference)
by1mdd047 0/1 turns head to sound of bell
by1mdd048 0/1 turns head to sound of rattle
by1mdd049 0/1 reaches for cube
by1mdd050 0/1 manipulates table edge actively
by1mdd051 0/1 eye-hand coordination in reaching
by1mdd052 0/1 regards pellet
by1mdd053 0/1 mirror image approach
by1mdd054 0/1 picks up cube (check hand preference)
by1mdd055 0/1 Vocalises attitudes
by1mdd056 0/1 retains 2 cubes
by1mdd057 0/1 exploitive paper play
by1mdd058 0/1 Discriminates strangers
by1mdd060 0/1 reaches persistently
by1mdd061 0/1 Likes frolic play
by1mdd062 0/1 turns head after fallen spoon
by1mdd063 0/1 lifts inverted cup
by1mdd064 0/1 reaches for second cube
by1mdd065 0/1 smiles at mirror (5.4 months)
by1mdd066 0/1 bangs in play
by1mdd067 0/1 sustained inspection of ring
by1mdd068 0/1 exploitive string play
by1mdd069 0/1 transfers objects hand to hand
by1mdd070 0/1 picks up cube deftly and directly
by1mdd071 0/1 pulls string: secures ring
by1mdd072 0/1 interest in sound production
by1mdd073 0/1 lifts cup with handle
by1mdd074 0/1 attends to scribbling
by1mdd075 0/1 looks for fallen spoon
by1mdd076 0/1 playful response to mirror
by1mdd077 0/1 retains 2 of 3 cubes offered
by1mdd078 0/1 manipulates bell: insterest in details
by1mdd079 0/1 vocalizes 4 different syllables
by1mdd080 0/1 pulls string adaptively: secures ring
by1mdd081 0/1 cooperates in games (is this some other scale?)
by1mdd082 0/1 attempts to secure 3 cubes
by1mdd083 0/1 rings bell purposely
by1mdd084 0/1 listens selectively with familiar words
by1mdd085 0/1 says "da-da" or equivalent
by1mdd086 0/1 Uncovers toy (check manual if by pulling cloth
by1mdd087 0/1 fingers holes in pegboard
by1mdd088 0/1 picks up cup, secures cube
by1mdd089 0/1 responds to verbal request
by1mdd090 0/1 puts cube in cup on command
by1mdd091 0/1 looks for content of box
by1mdd092 0/1 stirs with spoon in imitation
by1mdd093 0/1 looks at pictures in book
by1mdd094 0/1 inhibits on command
by1mdd095 0/1 attempting to imitate scribble
by1mdd096 0/1 unwraps cube
by1mdd097 0/1 repeats performance laughed at
by1mdd098 0/1 holds crayon adaptively
by1mdd099 0/1 pushes car along
by1mdd100 0/1 puts 3 or more cubes in cup
by1mdd101 0/1 jabbers expressively
by1mdd102 0/1 uncovers blue box
by1mdd103 0/1 turns pages of books
by1mdd104 0/1 Pats toy (whistle doll) in imitation
by1mdd105 0/1 dangles ring by string
by1mdd106 0/1 imitates words
by1mdd107 0/1 puts beads in box (6 of 8)
by1mdd108 0/1 places 1 peg repeateadly
by1mdd109 0/1 removes pellet from bottle
by1mdd110 0/1 blue board: places 1 round block
by1mdd111 0/1 builds tower of 2 cubes
by1mdd112 0/1 scribbles sponstaneously
by1mdd113 0/1 says 2 words
by1mdd114 0/1 puts 9 cubes in cup
by1mdd115 0/1 closes round box
by1mdd116 0/1 uses gestures to make wants known
by1mdd117 0/1 shows shoes or other clothing, or own toy
by1mdd118 0/1 pegs placed in 70 seconds
by1mdd119 0/1 builds tower of 3 cubes
by1mdd120 0/1 pink board: places round block
by1mdd121 0/1 blue board: places 2 round blocks
by1mdd122 0/1 attains toy with stick
by1mdd123 0/1 pegs placed in 42 seconds
by1mdd124 0/1 names 1 object
by1mdd125 0/1 imitates crayon stroke
by1pdd016 0/1 Ulnar-palmar prehension
by1pdd017 0/1 Sits with slight support
by1pdd018 0/1 Head balanced
by1pdd019 0/1 Turns from back to side
by1pdd020 0/1 Lifts head, dorsal position
by1pdd021 0/1 Partial thumb opposition
by1pdd022 0/1 Pulls to sitting
by1pdd023 0/1 Sits momentarily
by1pdd024 0/1 Unilateral reaching
by1pdd025 0/1 Attempts to secure pellet
by1pdd026 0/1 Rotates wrist
by1pdd027 0/1 Sits alone 30 seconds
by1pdd028 0/1 Rolls from back to stomach
by1pdd029 0/1 Sits steadily
by1pdd030 0/1 Scoops pellet
by1pdd031 0/1 Sits good coordination
by1pdd032 0/1 Complete thumb opposition
by1pdd033 0/1 Prewalking
by1pdd034 0/1 Early stepping movements
by1pdd035 0/1 Partial finger prehension
by1pdd036 0/1 Pulls to stand
by1pdd037 0/1 Raise self to sitting
by1pdd038 0/1 Stands up by furniture
by1pdd039 0/1 Combine midline
by1pdd040 0/1 Stepping movements
by1pdd041 0/1 Fine prehension
by1pdd042 0/1 Walks with help
by1pdd043 0/1 Sits down
by1pdd044 0/1 Play clap hands
by1pdd045 0/1 Stands alone
by1pdd046 0/1 Walks alone
by1pdd047 0/1 Stands up
by1pdd048 0/1 Throws ball
by1pdd049 0/1 Walsk sideways
by1pdd050 0/1 Walks backwards
by1pdd051 0/1 Stands on right foot with help
by1pdd052 0/1 Stands on left foot with help
by1pdd053 0/1 Walsk up stairs with help
by1pdd054 0/1 Walks down stairs with help
gricgd004 0/1 Holds rod put in hand (see E7)
gricgd006 0/1 Plays with own fingers
gricgd007 0/1 Resists withdrawal of rod
gricgd008 0/1 Claps cube put in hand
gricgd009 0/1 Reaches to Paper III - Pulls it away
gricgd010 0/1 Shows interest in box
gricgd011 0/1 (Performance) Holds 2 cubes.
gricgd012 0/1 (Performance) Takes cube or toy from table
gricgd013 0/1 (Performance) Passes toy from hand to hand
gricgd014 0/1 Drops one cube for third
gricgd015 0/1 Manipulates 2 objects at once
gricgd016 0/1 Reacts to Paper IV - Plays with, crumbles, etc.
gricgd017 0/1 Lifts inverted cup in search of toy
gricgd018 0/1 Rattles box
gricgd019 0/1 Lifts lid off box
gricgd020 0/1 (Performance) Clicks 2 bricks together
gricgd021 0/1 Tries to take cubes out of box
gricgd022 0/1 Finds toy under cup
gricgd023 0/1 (Performance) Accepts 3rd cube without dropping
gricgd024 0/1 Manipulates box, lid and cubes
gricgd201 0/1 Remove both cubes from box (shown)
gricgd202 0/1 Unwraps and finds toy
gricgd203 0/1 One circle board - 2 trials
gricgd204 0/1 Opens 2 boxes
gricgd205 0/1 Puts cubes in and out of boxes in play
gricgd206 0/1 Puts 2 cubes back into one box when encouraged to do so
gricgd207 0/1 Two circle board - one in
gricgd208 0/1 Square board - 2 trials
gricgd209 0/1 Two circle board - two in
gricgd210 0/1 Can put lid back on box
gricgd211 0/1 (Performance) Three hole board - one in.
griehd005 0/1 Follows a bell-ring - vomed in a complete circle
griehd006 0/1 Glances from one object to another
griehd007 0/1 Watches objects pulled along by string
griehd008 0/1 Visually explores new environment
griehd009 0/1 Reaches for ring and grasps
griehd010 0/1 Secures dangling ring
griehd011 0/1 Hands explore table surface
griehd012 0/1 Plays with ring - shaking bells, banging, etc.
griehd013 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Looks for falling object
griehd014 0/1 Strikes one object with another
griehd015 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Forefinger and thumb partly spe
griehd016 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Secures ring by means of strin
griehd017 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Fine prehension.
griehd018 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Dangles ring by the string
griehd019 0/1 Throws object
griehd020 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Thumb opposition complete.
griehd021 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Can point with index finger.
griehd022 0/1 Interest in motor car
griehd023 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Can hold pencil as if to mark o
griehd024 0/1 Likes holding little toys
griehd201 0/1 Uses pencil on paper a little
griehd202 0/1 Shows preference for one hand
griehd203 0/1 Plays rolling a ball
griehd204 0/1 Can hold 4 cubes in hands at once
griehd205 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Plays pushing little cars along
griehd206 0/1 Places one box, lid or brick upon another
griehd208 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Pulls paper or cloth to get toy
griehd209 0/1 (Eye and Hand Co-ordination) Scribbles more freely, and deli
griehd210 0/1 Constructive play with boxes or other materials
griehd212 0/1 Builds tower of 3 bricks
grigmd005 0/1 Lifts head when in dorsal position
grigmd006 0/1 Back firm when held in siting position
grigmd007 0/1 Lifts head and chest when prone
grigmd008 0/1 Can hold head erect continuously
grigmd009 0/1 Lifts head and shoulders when in dorsal position
grigmd010 0/1 Can roll from side to side
grigmd011 0/1 Crawling Reaction I: Draws up knee
grigmd012 0/1 (Locomotor) Sits with slight support.
grigmd013 0/1 (Locomotor) Can roll from back to stomach, etc.
grigmd014 0/1 Crawling Reaction II: Tries vigorously to crawl
grigmd015 0/1 (Locomotor) Sits alone for a short time
grigmd016 0/1 (Locomotor) Stepping reaction - one foot in front of the oth
grigmd017 0/1 (Locomotor) Can be left sitting on the floor.
grigmd018 0/1 Stands when held up
grigmd019 0/1 Crawling Reaction III: Makes some progress forwards or backw
grigmd020 0/1 Sits well in a chair
grigmd021 0/1 (Locomotor) Pulls self up and stands holding on to furniture
grigmd022 0/1 (Locomotor) Crawling Reaction IV: Creeps on hands and knees
grigmd023 0/1 (Locomotor) Side-steps around inside cot or play-pen holding
grigmd024 0/1 (Locomotor) Can walk when led.
grigmd201 0/1 Climbs on a low ledge or step
grigmd202 0/1 (Locomotor) Stands alone
grigmd203 0/1 (Locomotor) Takes a few steps alone
grigmd204 0/1 Kneels on floor or chair
grigmd205 0/1 Climbs - stairs (up)
grigmd206 0/1 Likes pushing pram, toy horse, etc.
grigmd207 0/1 (Locomotor) Walks alone well
grigmd208 0/1 (Locomotor) Stoops.
grigmd210 0/1 Climbs into a low armchair
grigmd211 0/1 (Locomotor) Can walk backwards a few steps
grihsd004 0/1 Searches for sound with eyes
grihsd005 0/1 (Hearing and Speech) Makes 2 + different speech sounds
grihsd006 0/1 Listens to music
grihsd007 0/1 Searches for sound with head movements
grihsd008 0/1 Listens to tuning fork
grihsd009 0/1 (Hearing and Speech)Turns head deliberately to bell
grihsd010 0/1 Coos or stops crying on hearing music
grihsd011 0/1 Talks (babbles) to person
grihsd012 0/1 Makes 4+ different sounds.
grihsd013 0/1 Responds when called
grihsd014 0/1 2 syllable babble
grihsd015 0/1 Listens to conversations
grihsd016 0/1 (Hearing and Speech) Babbled phrases: 4 + syllables
grihsd017 0/1 (Hearing and Speech) Says Mama or Dada, etc. (one word clear
grihsd018 0/1 Listens to stop watch
grihsd019 0/1 (Hearing and Speech) Rings the bell
grihsd020 0/1 Shakes head for no
grihsd021 0/1 says 2 clear words
grihsd022 0/1 Short babbled sentences of 6+ syllables
grihsd023 0/1 Babbled monologue when alone
grihsd024 0/1 Says three clear words
grihsd201 0/1 Looks at pictures for a sew seconds
grihsd202 0/1 Tries definitely to sing
grihsd203 0/1 (Hearing and Speech)Knows own name.
grihsd204 0/1 Likes rhymes and jingles
grihsd206 0/1 Uses 4 clear words
grihsd207 0/1 (Hearing and Speech) One object in box identified
grihsd209 0/1 Long babbled sentences - some words clear
grihsd210 0/1 Enjoys pictre book
grihsd211 0/1 Uses 6 or 7 clear words
grihsd212 0/1 Two objects in box identified
sgrehd009 0/1 Grasps ring
sgrehd012 0/1 Carries ring to mouth
sgrehd013 0/1 Clutches ring
sgrehd017 0/1 Reaches for string
sgrehd020 0/1 Watches scribble
sgrehd025 0/1 Pulls toy by string
sgrfmd008 0/1 Looks at box on table
sgrfmd011 0/1 Drops one block for second
sgrfmd016 0/1 Grasps box.
sgrfmd017 0/1 Manipulates cube
sgrfmd018 0/1 Takes paper
sgrgmd006 0/1 Active in bath
sgrgmd008 0/1 Rolls from side to back
sgrgmd014 0/1 Plays with own toes
sgrgmd018 0/1 Stepping movements
sgrgmd022 0/1 Can turn on floor
sgrgmd028 0/1 Can stand next to furniture
sgrhsd010 0/1 Laughs aloud
sgrhsd015 0/1 Manipulates bell
sgrhsd019 0/1 Shouts for attention
sgrhsd021 0/1 Singing tones
sgrhsd029 0/1 Reacts to music
sgrred006 0/1 Vocalises when spoken to
sgrred007 0/1 Follows moving person
sgrred008 0/1 Coos and smiles
sgrred009 0/1 Friendly to strangers
sgrred010 0/1 Resist ring being taken away
sgrred011 0/1 Frolics when played with
sgrred012 0/1 Stops crying when spoken to
sgrred013 0/1 Turns head to person talking
sgrred014 0/1 Anticipate being lifted
sgrred015 0/1 Holds a spoon
sgrred016 0/1 Stretches to be taken
sgrred017 0/1 Drinks from a cup
sgrred018 0/1 Manipulates cup or spoon in play
sgrred019 0/1 Reacts to mirror image
sgrred020 0/1 Knows strangers
sgrred021 0/1 Enthusiastic
sgrred022 0/1 Displeased when toy taken
sgrred023 0/1 Helps hold cup
sgrred024 0/1 Pulls off hat
sgrred025 0/1 Smiles, plays mirror
sgrred026 0/1 Waves bye bye
sgrred027 0/1 Gives affection
sgrred029 0/1 Plays cup, saucer
sgrred030 0/1 Obeys simple requests
sgrred031 0/1 Pays pat-a-cake
sgrred032 0/1 Puts block in and out of cup
sgrred033 0/1 Helps dressing
sgrred034 0/1 Hold cup
sgrred035 0/1 Uses spoon
sgrred036 0/1 Shoes shoes
sgrred037 0/1 tries doorknob
sgrred038 0/1 sks toilet
sgrred039 0/1 Manages cup well
sgrred040 0/1 Can take off shoes and socks
sgrred041 0/1 Like book showing
vinxxc002 0/1 chew solid foods
vinxxc003 0/1 take off socks / shoes
vinxxc004 0/1 transfer objects
vinxxc005 0/1 overcome simple obstacles
vinxxc006 0/1 fetch something
vinxxc007 0/1 drink from cup / glass
vinxxc008 0/1 walk by his / herself
vinxxc009 0/1 get on with other children
vinxxc010 0/1 eat soft food with a spoon
vinxxc011 0/1 walk around the yard without supervision
vinxxc012 0/1 know what's edible
vinxxc013 0/1 use names of objects - shoe
vinxxc014 0/1 walk upstairs
vinxxc015 0/1 unwrap sweet
vinxxc016 0/1 use a short sentence
vinxxc017 0/1 ask or tell when it needs the toilet
vinxxc018 0/1 play by his / herself
vinxxc019 0/1 take off dress / shirt if buttons / zip undone
vinxxc020 0/1 get a cup of water without help
vinxxc021 0/1 dry hands after you have washed them
vinxxc022 0/1 avoid simple danger - knife / hot
vinxxc023 0/1 put on own dress / shirt
vinxxc024 0/1 tell you things / simple story
vinxxc025 0/1 walk downstairs
vinxxc026 0/1 play / do things with children - song
vinxxc027 0/1 put on own dress / shirt and do buttons
vinxxc028 0/1 help around the house / clear table
vinxxc029 0/1 perform for others stunts / rhymes
vinxxc030 0/1 wash hands and dry
vinxxc031 0/1 Play or do things with other children of same age eg sing so
vinxxc032 0/1 Use pencil or crayon for drawing
vinxxc033 0/1 Avoid simple dangers eg hot things, knives
vinxxc034 0/1 Buttons coat or dress
vinxxc035 0/1 Play competition exercise games eg skipping, marbles
vinxxc036 0/1 Walk down steps with one foot one ach step
vinxxc037 0/1 Dy hands without help
vinxxc038 0/1 Eat food with an implement
vinxxc039 0/1 Get a cup of water without help
vinxxc040 0/1 Help with little things around the house eg pick up things
vinxxc041 0/1 Tell things that happen or simple stories
vinxxc042 0/1 Put on jacket or dress without help except for zip or button
vinxxc043 0/1 Peform for other people, stunts, show off
vinxxc044 0/1 Use a pair of scissors without supervision
vinxxc045 0/1 Go to toilet by self, remove clothes, wipe
vinxxc046 0/1 Take off jacket or dress without help except for zip or butt
vinxxc047 0/1 Wash face without help
vinxxc048 0/1 Wash hands without help
vinxxc049 0/1 Play by themselves without supervision for short time
vinxxc050 0/1 Ask or tell when wants to go to toilet
vinxxc051 0/1 Generally dress self except for difficult fasteners


The combination of subjid and agedays identifies each unique visit (row).

Instruments: Bayley I (by1), Griffiths (gri), South African adapted Griffith (sgr), Vineland Social Maturity Scale (vin)


Richter L, Norris S, Pettifor J, Yach D, Cameron N. Cohort profile: Mandela’s children: the 1990 Birth to Twenty study in South Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2007;36:504-511.

[Package childdevdata version 1.1.0 Index]