generate_tree_with_evolving_rates {castor}R Documentation

Generate a random tree with evolving speciation/extinction rates.

Description

Generate a random phylogenetic tree via simulation of a Poissonian speciation/extinction (birth/death) process. New species are added (born) by splitting of a randomly chosen extant tip. Per-capita birth and death rates (aka. speciation and extinction rates) evolve under some stochastic process (e.g. Brownian motion) along each edge. Thus, the probability rate of a tip splitting or going extinct depends on the tip, with closely related tips having more similar per-capita birth and death rates.

Usage

generate_tree_with_evolving_rates(parameters           = list(),
                                  rate_model           = 'BM',
                                  max_tips             = NULL, 
                                  max_time             = NULL,
                                  max_time_eq          = NULL,
                                  coalescent           = TRUE,
                                  as_generations       = FALSE,
                                  tip_basename         = "", 
                                  node_basename        = NULL,
                                  include_event_times  = FALSE,
                                  include_rates        = FALSE)

Arguments

parameters

A named list specifying the model parameters for the evolving birth/death rates. The precise entries expected depend on the chosen rate_model (see details below).

rate_model

Character, specifying the model for the evolving per-capita birth/death rates. Must be one of the following: 'BM' (Brownian motion constrained to a finite interval via reflection), 'Mk' (discrete-state continuous-time Markov chain with fixed transition rates).

max_tips

Maximum number of tips of the tree to be generated. If coalescent=TRUE, this refers to the number of extant tips. Otherwise, it refers to the number of extinct + extant tips. If NULL or <=0, the number of tips is unlimited (so be careful).

max_time

Maximum duration of the simulation. If NULL or <=0, this constraint is ignored.

max_time_eq

Maximum duration of the simulation, counting from the first point at which speciation/extinction equilibrium is reached, i.e. when (birth rate - death rate) changed sign for the first time. If NULL or <0, this constraint is ignored.

coalescent

Logical, specifying whether only the coalescent tree (i.e. the tree spanning the extant tips) should be returned. If coalescent==FALSE and the death rate is non-zero, then the tree may include non-extant tips (i.e. tips whose distance from the root is less than the total time of evolution). In that case, the tree will not be ultrametric.

as_generations

Logical, specifying whether edge lengths should correspond to generations. If FALSE, then edge lengths correspond to time.

tip_basename

Character. Prefix to be used for tip labels (e.g. "tip."). If empty (""), then tip labels will be integers "1", "2" and so on.

node_basename

Character. Prefix to be used for node labels (e.g. "node."). If NULL, no node labels will be included in the tree.

include_event_times

Logical. If TRUE, then the times of speciation and extinction events (each in order of occurrence) will also be returned.

include_rates

Logical. If TRUE, then the bper-capita birth & death rates of all tips and nodes will also be returned.

Details

If max_time==NULL, then the returned tree will always contain max_tips tips. In particular, if at any moment during the simulation the tree only includes a single extant tip, the death rate is temporarily set to zero to prevent the complete extinction of the tree. If max_tips==NULL, then the simulation is ran as long as specified by max_time. If neither max_time nor max_tips is NULL, then the simulation halts as soon as the time exceeds max_time or the number of tips (extant tips if coalescent is TRUE) exceeds max_tips.

If rate_model=='BM', then per-capita birth rates (speciation rates) and per-capita death rates (extinction rates) evolve according to Brownian Motion, constrained to a finite interval via reflection. Note that speciation and extinction rates are only updated at branching points, i.e. during speciation events, while waiting times until speciation/extinction are based on rates at the previous branching point. The argument parameters should be a named list including one or more of the following elements:

If rate_model=='Mk', then speciation/extinction rates are determined by a tip's current "state", which evolves according to a continuous-time discrete-state Markov chain (Mk model) with constant transition rates. The argument parameters should be a named list including one or more of the following elements:

Note: The option rate_model=='Mk' is deprecated and included for backward compatibility purposes only. To generate a tree with Markov transitions between states (known as Multiple State Speciation and Extinction model), use the command simulate_dsse instead.

Value

A named list with the following elements:

success

Logical, indicating whether the simulation was successful. If FALSE, an additional element error (of type character) is included containing an explanation of the error; in that case the value of any of the other elements is undetermined.

tree

A rooted bifurcating tree of class "phylo", generated according to the specified birth/death model.

If coalescent==TRUE or if all death rates are zero, and only if as_generations==FALSE, then the tree will be ultrametric. If as_generations==TRUE and coalescent==FALSE, all edges will have unit length.

root_time

Numeric, giving the time at which the tree's root was first split during the simulation. Note that if coalescent==TRUE, this may be later than the first speciation event during the simulation.

final_time

Numeric, giving the final time at the end of the simulation. If coalescent==TRUE, then this may be greater than the total time span of the tree (since the root of the coalescent tree need not correspond to the first speciation event).

equilibrium_time

Numeric, giving the first time where the sign of (death rate - birth rate) changed from the beginning of the simulation, i.e. when speciation/extinction equilibrium was reached. May be infinite if the simulation stoped before reaching this point.

Nbirths

Total number of birth events (speciations) that occurred during tree growth. This may be lower than the total number of tips in the tree if death rates were non-zero and coalescent==TRUE.

Ndeaths

Total number of deaths (extinctions) that occurred during tree growth.

birth_times

Numeric vector, listing the times of speciation events during tree growth, in order of occurrence. Note that if coalescent==TRUE, then speciation_times may be greater than the phylogenetic distance to the coalescent root. Only returned if include_event_times==TRUE.

death_times

Numeric vector, listing the times of extinction events during tree growth, in order of occurrence. Note that if coalescent==TRUE, then speciation_times may be greater than the phylogenetic distance to the coalescent root. Only returned if include_event_times==TRUE.

birth_rates_pc

Numeric vector, listing the per-capita birth rate of each tip and node in the tree. The length of an edge in the tree was thus drawn from an exponential distribution with rate equal to the per-capita birth rate of the child tip or node.

death_rates_pc

Numeric vector, listing the per-capita death rate of each tip and node in the tree.

states

Integer vector of size Ntips+Nnodes, listing the discrete state of each tip and node in the tree. Only included if rate_model=="Mk".

start_state

Integer, specifying the initial state of the first created lineage (either provided during the function call, or generated randomly). Only included if rate_model=="Mk".

root_birth_rate_pc

Numeric, specifying the initial per-capita birth rate of the root (either provided during the function call, or generated randomly). Only included if rate_model=="BM".

root_death_rate_pc

Numeric, specifying the initial per-capita death rate of the root (either provided during the function call, or generated randomly). Only included if rate_model=="BM".

Author(s)

Stilianos Louca

References

D. J. Aldous (2001). Stochastic models and descriptive statistics for phylogenetic trees, from Yule to today. Statistical Science. 16:23-34.

W. P. Maddison, P. E. Midford, S. P. Otto (2007). Estimating a binary character's effect on speciation and extinction. Systematic Biology. 56:701-710.

See Also

simulate_dsse

Examples

# Example 1
# Generate tree, with rates evolving under Brownian motion
parameters = list(birth_rate_diffusivity  = 1,
                  min_birth_rate_pc       = 1,
                  max_birth_rate_pc       = 2,
                  death_rate_diffusivity  = 0.5,
                  min_death_rate_pc       = 0,
                  max_death_rate_pc       = 1)
simulation = generate_tree_with_evolving_rates(parameters,
                                               rate_model='BM',
                                               max_tips=1000,
                                               include_rates=TRUE)
tree  = simulation$tree
Ntips = length(tree$tip.label)

# plot per-capita birth & death rates of tips
plot( x=simulation$birth_rates_pc[1:Ntips], 
      y=simulation$death_rates_pc[1:Ntips], 
      type='p', 
      xlab="pc birth rate", 
      ylab="pc death rate", 
      main="Per-capita birth & death rates across tips (BM model)",
      las=1)

      
######################
# Example 2
# Generate tree, with rates evolving under a binary-state model
Q = get_random_mk_transition_matrix(Nstates=2, rate_model="ER", max_rate=0.1)
parameters = list(Nstates = 2,
                  state_birth_rates = c(1,1.5),
                  state_death_rates = 0.5,
                  transition_matrix = Q)
simulation = generate_tree_with_evolving_rates(parameters,
                                               rate_model='Mk',
                                               max_tips=1000,
                                               include_rates=TRUE)
tree  = simulation$tree
Ntips = length(tree$tip.label)

# plot distribution of per-capita birth rates of tips
rates = simulation$birth_rates_pc[1:Ntips]
barplot(table(rates)/length(rates), 
        xlab="rate", 
        main="Distribution of pc birth rates across tips (Mk model)")

[Package castor version 1.6.8 Index]