fit_mk {castor}R Documentation

Fit a Markov (Mk) model for discrete trait evolution.

Description

Estimate the transition rate matrix of a continuous-time Markov model for discrete trait evolution ("Mk model") via maximum-likelihood, based on one or more phylogenetic trees and its tips' states.

Usage

fit_mk( trees,
        Nstates,
        tip_states              = NULL,
        tip_priors              = NULL,
        rate_model              = "ER",
        root_prior              = "auto",
        oldest_ages             = NULL,
        guess_transition_matrix = NULL,
        Ntrials                 = 1,
        max_model_runtime       = NULL,
        optim_algorithm         = "nlminb",
        optim_max_iterations    = 200,
        optim_rel_tol           = 1e-8,
        check_input             = TRUE,
        Nthreads                = 1,
        Nbootstraps             = 0,	
        Ntrials_per_bootstrap   = NULL,
        verbose                 = FALSE,
        verbose_prefix          = "")
        

Arguments

trees

Either a single phylogenetic tree of class "phylo", or a list of phylogenetic trees. Edge lengths should correspond (or be analogous) to time. The trees don't need to be ultrametric.

Nstates

Integer, specifying the number of possible discrete states that the trait can have.

tip_states

Either an integer vector of size Ntips (only permitted if trees[] is a single tree) or a list containing Ntrees such integer vectors (if trees[] is a list of trees), listing the state of each tip in each tree. Note that tip_states cannot include NAs or NaNs; if the states of some tips are uncertain, you should use the option tip_priors instead. Can also be NULL, in which case tip_priors must be provided.

tip_priors

Either a numeric matrix of size Ntips x Nstates (only permitted if trees[] is a single tree), or a list containing Ntrees such matrixes (if trees[] is a list of trees), listing the likelihood of each state at each tip in each tree. Can also be NULL, in which case tip_states must be provided. Hence, tip_priors[t][i,s] is the likelihood of the observed state of tip i in tree t, if the tip's true state was in state s. For example, if you know for certain that a tip is in state k, then set tip_priors[t][i,s]=1 for s=k and tip_priors[t][i,s]=0 for all other s.

rate_model

Rate model to be used for the transition rate matrix. Can be "ER" (all rates equal), "SYM" (transition rate i–>j is equal to transition rate j–>i), "ARD" (all rates can be different), "SUEDE" (only stepwise transitions i–>i+1 and i–>i-1 allowed, all 'up' transitions are equal, all 'down' transitions are equal) or "SRD" (only stepwise transitions i–>i+1 and i–>i-1 allowed, and each rate can be different). Can also be an index matrix that maps entries of the transition matrix to the corresponding independent rate parameter to be fitted. Diagonal entries should map to 0, since diagonal entries are not treated as independent rate parameters but are calculated from the remaining entries in the transition rate matrix. All other entries that map to 0 represent a transition rate of zero. The format of this index matrix is similar to the format used by the ace function in the ape package. rate_model is only relevant if transition_matrix==NULL.

root_prior

Prior probability distribution of the root's states, used to calculate the model's overall likelihood from the root's marginal ancestral state likelihoods. Can be "flat" (all states equal), "empirical" (empirical probability distribution of states across the tree's tips), "stationary" (stationary probability distribution of the transition matrix), "likelihoods" (use the root's state likelihoods as prior), "max_likelihood" (put all weight onto the state with maximum likelihood) or “auto” (will be chosen automatically based on some internal logic). If "stationary" and transition_matrix==NULL, then a transition matrix is first fitted using a flat root prior, and then used to calculate the stationary distribution. root_prior can also be a non-negative numeric vector of size Nstates and with total sum equal to 1.

oldest_ages

Optional numeric or numeric vector of size Ntrees, specifying the oldest age (time before present) for each tree to consider when fitting the Mk model. If NULL, the entire trees are considered from the present all the way to their root. If non-NULL, then each tree is “cut” at the corresponding oldest age, yielding multiple subtrees, each of which is assumed to be an independent realization of the Mk process. If oldest_ages is a single numeric, then all trees are cut at the same oldest age. This option may be useful if temporal variation is suspected in the Mk rates, and only data near the present are to be used for fitting to avoid violating the assumptions of a constant-rates Mk model.

guess_transition_matrix

Optional 2D numeric matrix, specifying a reasonable first guess for the transition rate matrix. May contain NA. May also be NULL, in which case a reasonable first guess is automatically generated.

Ntrials

Number of trials (starting points) for fitting the transition rate matrix. A higher number may reduce the risk of landing in a local non-global optimum of the likelihood function, but will increase computation time during fitting.

max_model_runtime

Optional positive numeric, specifying the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for a single evaluation of the likelihood function. If a specific Mk model takes longer than this threshold to evaluate, then its likelihood is set to -Inf. This option can be used to avoid badly parameterized models during fitting and can thus reduce fitting time. If NULL or <=0, this option is ignored.

optim_algorithm

Either "optim" or "nlminb", specifying which optimization algorithm to use for maximum-likelihood estimation of the transition matrix.

optim_max_iterations

Maximum number of iterations (per fitting trial) allowed for optimizing the likelihood function.

optim_rel_tol

Relative tolerance (stop criterion) for optimizing the likelihood function.

check_input

Logical, specifying whether to perform some basic checks on the validity of the input data. If you are certain that your input data are valid, you can set this to FALSE to reduce computation.

Nthreads

Number of parallel threads to use for running multiple fitting trials simultaneously. This only makes sense if your computer has multiple cores/CPUs and if Ntrials>1. This option is ignored on Windows, because Windows does not support forking.

Nbootstraps

Integer, specifying the number of parametric bootstraps to perform for estimating standard errors and confidence intervals of estimated rate parameters. Set to 0 for no bootstrapping.

Ntrials_per_bootstrap

Integer, specifying the number of fitting trials to perform for each bootstrap sampling. If NULL, this is set equal to max(1,Ntrials). Decreasing Ntrials_per_bootstrap will reduce computation time, at the expense of potentially inflating the estimated confidence intervals; in some cases (e.g., for very large trees) this may be useful if fitting takes a long time and confidence intervals are very narrow anyway. Only relevant if Nbootstraps>0.

verbose

Logical, specifying whether to print progress reports and warnings to the screen.

verbose_prefix

Character, specifying the line prefix for printing progress reports to the screen.

Details

The trait's states must be represented by integers within 1,..,Nstates, where Nstates is the total number of possible states. If the states are originally in some other format (e.g. characters or factors), you should map them to a set of integers 1,..,Nstates. The order of states (if relevant) should be reflected in their integer representation. For example, if your original states are "small", "medium" and "large" and rate_model=="SUEDE", it is advised to represent these states as integers 1,2,3. You can easily map any set of discrete states to integers using the function map_to_state_space.

This function allows the specification of the precise tip states (if these are known) using the vector tip_states. Alternatively, if some tip states are not fully known, you can pass the state likelihoods using the matrix tip_priors. Note that exactly one of the two arguments, tip_states or tip_priors, must be non-NULL.

Tips must be represented in tip_states or tip_priors in the same order as in tree$tip.label. None of the input vectors or matrixes need include row or column names; if they do, however, they are checked for consistency (if check_input==TRUE).

The tree is either assumed to be complete (i.e. include all possible species), or to represent a random subset of species chosen independently of their states. If the tree is not complete and tips are not chosen independently of their states, then this method will not be valid.

fit_Mk uses maximum-likelihood to estimate each free parameter of the transition rate matrix. The number of free parameters depends on the rate_model considered; for example, ER implies a single free parameter, while ARD implies Nstates x (Nstates-1) free parameters. If multiple trees are provided as input, the likelihood is the product of likelihoods for each tree, i.e. as if each tree was an independent realization of the same Markov process.

This function is similar to asr_mk_model, but focused solely on fitting the transition rate matrix (i.e., without estimating ancestral states) and with the ability to utilize multiple trees at once.

Value

A named list with the following elements:

success

Logical, indicating whether the fitting was successful. If FALSE, an additional element error (of type character) is included containing an explanation of the error; in that case the value of any of the other elements is undetermined.

Nstates

Integer, the number of states assumed for the model.

transition_matrix

A matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, the fitted transition rate matrix of the model. The [r,c]-th entry is the transition rate from state r to state c.

loglikelihood

Numeric, the log-likelihood of the observed tip states under the fitted model.

Niterations

Integer, the number of iterations required to reach the maximum log-likelihood. Depending on the optimization algorithm used (see optim_algorithm), this may be NA.

Nevaluations

Integer, the number of evaluations of the likelihood function required to reach the maximum log-likelihood. Depending on the optimization algorithm used (see optim_algorithm), this may be NA.

converged

Logical, indicating whether the fitting algorithm converged. Note that fit_Mk may return successfully even if convergence was not achieved; if this happens, the fitted transition matrix may not be reasonable. In that case it is recommended to change the optimization options, for example increasing optim_max_iterations.

guess_rate

Numeric, the initial guess used for the average transition rate, prior to fitting.

AIC

Numeric, the Akaike Information Criterion for the fitted model, defined as 2k-2\log(L), where k is the number of independent fitted parameters and L is the maximized likelihood.

standard_errors

Numeric matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, estimated standard error of the fitted transition rates, based on parametric bootstrapping. Only returned if Nbootstraps>0.

CI50lower

Numeric matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, lower bounds of the 50% confidence intervals (25-75% percentile) for the fitted transition rates, based on parametric bootstrapping. Only returned if Nbootstraps>0.

CI50upper

Numeric matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, upper bounds of the 50% confidence intervals for the fitted transition rates, based on parametric bootstrapping. Only returned if Nbootstraps>0.

CI95lower

Numeric matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, lower bounds of the 95% confidence intervals (2.5-97.5% percentile) for the fitted transition rates, based on parametric bootstrapping. Only returned if Nbootstraps>0.

CI95upper

Numeric matrix of size Nstates x Nstates, upper bounds of the 95% confidence intervals for the fitted transition rates, based on parametric bootstrapping. Only returned if Nbootstraps>0.

Author(s)

Stilianos Louca

References

Z. Yang, S. Kumar and M. Nei (1995). A new method for inference of ancestral nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Genetics. 141:1641-1650.

M. Pagel (1994). Detecting correlated evolution on phylogenies: a general method for the comparative analysis of discrete characters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 255:37-45.

See Also

asr_mk_model, simulate_mk_model, fit_musse

Examples

## Not run: 
# generate random tree
Ntips = 1000
tree  = generate_random_tree(list(birth_rate_intercept=1),max_tips=Ntips)$tree

# create random transition matrix
Nstates = 5
Q = get_random_mk_transition_matrix(Nstates, rate_model="ER", max_rate=0.01)
cat(sprintf("Simulated ER transition rate=%g\n",Q[1,2]))

# simulate the trait's evolution
simulation = simulate_mk_model(tree, Q)
tip_states = simulation$tip_states

# fit Mk transition matrix
results = fit_mk(tree, Nstates, tip_states, rate_model="ER", Ntrials=2)

# print Mk model fitting summary
cat(sprintf("Mk model: log-likelihood=%g\n",results$loglikelihood))
cat(sprintf("Fitted ER transition rate=%g\n",results$transition_matrix[1,2]))

## End(Not run)

[Package castor version 1.7.0 Index]