checkConsistency {cNORM}R Documentation

Check the consistency of the norm data model


While abilities increase and decline over age, within one age group, the norm scores always have to show a linear increase or decrease with increasing raw scores. Violations of this assumption are a strong indication for problems in modeling the relationship between raw and norm scores. There are several reasons, why this might occur:

  1. Vertical extrapolation: Choosing extreme norm scores, e. g. values -3 <= x and x >= 3 In order to model these extreme values, a large sample dataset is necessary.

  2. Horizontal extrapolation: Taylor polynomials converge in a certain radius. Using the model values outside the original dataset may lead to inconsistent results.

  3. The data cannot be modeled with Taylor polynomials, or you need another power parameter (k) or R2 for the model.

In general, extrapolation (point 1 and 2) can carefully be done to a certain degree outside the original sample, but it should in general be handled with caution.


  minAge = NULL,
  maxAge = NULL,
  minNorm = NULL,
  maxNorm = NULL,
  minRaw = NULL,
  maxRaw = NULL,
  stepAge = 1,
  stepNorm = 1,
  warn = FALSE,
  silent = FALSE,
  covariate = NULL



The model from the bestModel function or a cnorm object


Age to start with checking


Upper end of the age check


Lower end of the norm value range


Upper end of the norm value range


clipping parameter for the lower bound of raw scores


clipping parameter for the upper bound of raw scores


Stepping parameter for the age check, usually 1 or 0.1; lower values indicate higher precision / closer checks


Stepping parameter for the norm table check within age with lower scores indicating a higher precision. The choice depends of the norm scale used. With T scores a stepping parameter of 1 is suitable


If set to TRUE, already minor violations of the model assumptions are displayed (default = FALSE)


turn off messages


In case, a covariate has been used, please specify the degree of the covariate / the specific value here.


Boolean, indicating model violations (TRUE) or no problems (FALSE)

See Also

Other model: bestModel(),, derive(), modelSummary(), print.cnorm(), printSubset(), rangeCheck(), regressionFunction(), summary.cnorm()


result <- cnorm(raw = elfe$raw, group = elfe$group)
modelViolations <- checkConsistency(result,
  minAge = 2, maxAge = 5, stepAge = 0.1,
  minNorm = 25, maxNorm = 75, minRaw = 0, maxRaw = 28, stepNorm = 1
plotDerivative(result, minAge = 2, maxAge = 5, minNorm = 25, maxNorm = 75)

[Package cNORM version 2.0.3 Index]