network_permutation {asnipe}R Documentation

Perform Permutation

Description

Performs permutations on the data and calculates network for each step

Usage

network_permutation(association_data, data_format = "GBI", permutations = 1000, 
	returns=1, association_index = "SRI", association_matrix = NULL, 
	identities = NULL, which_identities = NULL, times = NULL, occurrences = NULL,
	locations = NULL,  which_locations = NULL, start_time = NULL, 
	end_time = NULL, classes = NULL, which_classes = NULL, 
	days = NULL, within_day = FALSE, within_location = FALSE, within_class = FALSE,
	enter_time = NULL, exit_time = NULL, symmetric=TRUE, trialSwap=TRUE)

Arguments

association_data

a K x N matrix of K groups (observations, gathering events, etc.) and N individuals (all individuals that are present in at least one group) OR a K x N x N array of sampling periods.

data_format

"GBI" expect a group by individual matrix, "SP" Expect a sampling periods array

permutations

number of permutations (default = 1000)

returns

number of swaps to perform between each association matrix that is returned (default = 1)

association_index

"SRI" Simple ratio index, "HWI" Half-weight index (more to come)

association_matrix

provide a starting association matrix (see details)

identities

N vector of identifiers for each individual (column) in the group by individual matrix

which_identities

vector of identities to include in the network (subset of identities)

times

K vector of times defining the middle of each group/event

occurrences

N x S matrix with the occurrence of each individual in each sampling period (see details) containing only 0s and 1s

locations

K vector of locations defining the location of each group/event

which_locations

vector of locations to include in the network (subset of locations)

start_time

element describing the starting time for inclusion in the network (useful for temporal analysis)

end_time

element describing the ending time for inclusion in the network (useful for temporal analysis)

classes

N vector of types or class of each individual (column) in the group by individual matrix (for subsetting)

which_classes

vector of class(es)/type(s) to include in the network (subset of classes)

days

K vector of day stamp for each event (can be integer or string representing any period of time)

within_day

if TRUE then permutations will be done within the time periods

within_location

if TRUE then permutations will be done within the given locations

within_class

if TRUE then permutations will be done within the given classes

enter_time

N vector of times when each individual entered the population

exit_time

N vector of times when each individual departed the population

symmetric

Boolean to ensure that permutations maintain symmetry within sampling periods if using data_format="SP"

trialSwap

Boolean to include trial swaps (if true, then every attempted permutation is returned)

Details

Performs permutations on the group by individual matrix as given by Whitehead (2008). In order to save computing, only the recently swapped individuals are recalculated, hence why the association matrix of the original data can be provided or is recalculated.

This implementation allows permutations (swaps) to be restricted to within any of three classes. Though each class is labelled, the function is flexible. Hence, days can represent any time period (months, hours, etc.).

Trial swaps are implemented following Miklos and Podani (2004). Every permutation, a candidate swap is selected. If the selected portions of the data satisfy the baseline rules (e.g. the checkerboard pattern), then either the selection is attempted again trialSwap = FALSE or not trialSwap = TRUE. This should be set to TRUE, but the option for FALSE is provided for legacy analyses.

See get_network function for additional details on each field.

Value

Returns a p x N x N stack of matrices with the dyadic association rates of each pair of individuals after each swap or after a number of swaps, where p = ceiling(permutations/returns)

Author(s)

Damien R. Farine

References

Whitehead (2008) Analyzing Animal Societies

Examples


### USING TIMES, ETC.

data("group_by_individual")
data("times")

# subset GBI (to reduce run time of the example)
gbi <- gbi[,1:80]

## define to 2 x N x N network to hold two association matrices
networks <- array(0, c(2, ncol(gbi), ncol(gbi)))

## calculate network for first half of the time
networks[1,,] <- get_network(gbi, data_format="GBI", 
	association_index="SRI", times=times, start_time=0, 
	end_time=max(times)/2)
networks[2,,] <- get_network(gbi, data_format="GBI",
	association_index="SRI", times=times, 
	start_time=max(times)/2, end_time=max(times))

## calculate the weighted degree
library(sna)
deg_weighted <- degree(networks,gmode="graph", g=c(1,2), ignore.eval=FALSE)

## perform the permutations constricting within hour of observation
## note permutations are limited to 10 to reduce runtime
network1_perm <- network_permutation(gbi, data_format="GBI",
	association_matrix=networks[1,,], times=times, start_time=0, 
	end_time=max(times)/2, days=floor(times/3600), within_day=TRUE,
	permutations=10)
network2_perm <- network_permutation(gbi, data_format="GBI",
	association_matrix=networks[2,,], times=times, 
	start_time=max(times)/2, end_time=max(times), days=floor(times/3600), within_day=TRUE,
	permutations=10)

## calculate the weighted degree for each permutation
deg_weighted_perm1 <- degree(network1_perm,gmode="graph", g=c(1:10), ignore.eval=FALSE)
deg_weighted_perm2 <- degree(network2_perm,gmode="graph", g=c(1:10), ignore.eval=FALSE)
detach(package:sna)

## plot the distribution of permutations with the original data overlaid
par(mfrow=c(1,2))
hist(colMeans(deg_weighted_perm1),breaks=100, 
	main=paste("P = ", 
	sum(mean(deg_weighted[,1]) < colMeans(deg_weighted_perm1))/ncol(deg_weighted_perm1)), 
	xlab="Weighted degree", ylab="Probability")
abline(v=mean(deg_weighted[,1]), col='red')
hist(colMeans(deg_weighted_perm2),breaks=100, 
	main=paste("P = ",
	sum(mean(deg_weighted[,2]) < colMeans(deg_weighted_perm2))/ncol(deg_weighted_perm2)), 
	xlab="Weighted degree", ylab="Probability")
abline(v=mean(deg_weighted[,2]), col='red')



#### DOUBLE PERMUTATION EXAMPLE (see Farine & Carter 2021)

## Load data
data("group_by_individual")
data("times")

# subset GBI (to reduce run time of the example)
gbi <- gbi[,1:40]

# Specify metric
metric <- "DEGREE"

# calculate observed network
network <- get_network(gbi, data_format="GBI", 
	association_index="SRI", times=times)

# Calculate observed metric (degree)
degrees <- rowSums(network)

# Do randomisation (as above, permutations should be >=1000)
networks.perm <- network_permutation(gbi, data_format="GBI",
	association_matrix=network, times=times, permutations=10)

# Now calculate the same metric on all the random networks
degrees.rand <- apply(networks.perm,1,function(x) { rowSums(x)})

# Now substract each individual's median from the observed
degree.controlled <- degrees - apply(degrees.rand,1,median)

#### Now use degree.controlled for any later test. For example, to related against a trait:

# Make a trait
trait <- rnorm(length(degree.controlled))

# get the coefficient of this:
coef <- summary(lm(degree.controlled~trait))$coefficients[2,3]

# Compare this to a node permutation 
# (here just randomising the trait values)
# note this should be done >= 1000 times
n.node.perm <- 10
coefs.random <- rep(NA, n.node.perm)

for (i in 1:n.node.perm) {
	trait.random <- sample(trait)
	coefs.random[i] <- summary(lm(degree.controlled~trait.random))$coefficients[2,3]
}

# calculate P value (note this is only one sided)
P <- sum(coef <= coefs.random)/n.node.perm



[Package asnipe version 1.1.16 Index]