collapseDuplicates {alakazam}R Documentation

Remove duplicate DNA sequences and combine annotations


collapseDuplicates identifies duplicate DNA sequences, allowing for ambiguous characters, removes the duplicate entries, and combines any associated annotations.


  id = "sequence_id",
  seq = "sequence_alignment",
  text_fields = NULL,
  num_fields = NULL,
  seq_fields = NULL,
  add_count = FALSE,
  ignore = c("N", "-", ".", "?"),
  sep = ",",
  dry = FALSE,
  verbose = FALSE



data.frame containing Change-O columns. The data.frame must contain, at a minimum, a unique identifier column and a column containg a character vector of DNA sequences.


name of the column containing sequence identifiers.


name of the column containing DNA sequences.


character vector of textual columns to collapse. The textual annotations of duplicate sequences will be merged into a single string with each unique value alphabetized and delimited by sep.


vector of numeric columns to collapse. The numeric annotations of duplicate sequences will be summed.


vector of nucletoide sequence columns to collapse. The sequence with the fewest numer of non-informative characters will be retained. Where a non-informative character is one of c("N", "-", ".", "?"). Note, this is distinct from the seq parameter which is used to determine duplicates.


if TRUE add the column collpase_count that indicates the number of sequences that were collapsed to build each unique entry.


vector of characters to ignore when testing for equality.


character to use for delimiting collapsed annotations in the text_fields columns. Defines both the input and output delimiter.


if TRUE perform dry run. Only labels the sequences without collapsing them.


if TRUE report the number input, discarded and output sequences; if FALSE process sequences silently.


collapseDuplicates identifies duplicate sequences in the seq column by testing for character identity, with consideration of IUPAC ambiguous nucleotide codes. A cluster of sequences are considered duplicates if they are all equivalent, and no member of the cluster is equivalent to a sequence in a different cluster.

Textual annotations, specified by text_fields, are collapsed by taking the unique set of values within in each duplicate cluster and delimiting those values by sep. Numeric annotations, specified by num_fields, are collapsed by summing all values in the duplicate cluster. Sequence annotations, specified by seq_fields, are collapsed by retaining the first sequence with the fewest number of N characters.

Columns that are not specified in either text_fields, num_fields, or seq_fields will be retained, but the value will be chosen from a random entry amongst all sequences in a cluster of duplicates.

An ambiguous sequence is one that can be assigned to two different clusters, wherein the ambiguous sequence is equivalent to two sequences which are themselves non-equivalent. Ambiguous sequences arise due to ambiguous characters at positions that vary across sequences, and are discarded along with their annotations when dry=FALSE. Thus, ambiguous sequences are removed as duplicates of some sequence, but do not create a potential false-positive annotation merger. Ambiguous sequences are not included in the collapse_count annotation that is added when add_count=TRUE.

If dry=TRUE sequences will not be removed from the input. Instead, the following columns will be appended to the input defining the collapse action that would have been performed in the dry=FALSE case.


A modified data data.frame with duplicate sequences removed and annotation fields collapsed if dry=FALSE. If dry=TRUE, sequences will be labeled with the collapse action, but the input will be otherwise unmodifed (see Details).

See Also

Equality is tested with seqEqual and pairwiseEqual. For IUPAC ambiguous character codes see IUPAC_DNA.


# Example data.frame
db <- data.frame(sequence_id=LETTERS[1:4],
                 sequence_alignment=c("CCCCTGGG", "CCCCTGGN", "NAACTGGN", "NNNCTGNN"),
                 c_call=c("IGHM", "IGHG", "IGHG", "IGHA"),
                 sample_id=c("S1", "S1", "S2", "S2"),

# Annotations are not parsed if neither text_fields nor num_fields is specified
# The retained sequence annotations will be random
collapseDuplicates(db, verbose=TRUE)

# Unique text_fields annotations are combined into a single string with ","
# num_fields annotations are summed
# Ambiguous duplicates are discarded
collapseDuplicates(db, text_fields=c("c_call", "sample_id"), num_fields="duplicate_count", 

# Use alternate delimiter for collapsing textual annotations
collapseDuplicates(db, text_fields=c("c_call", "sample_id"), num_fields="duplicate_count", 
                   sep="/", verbose=TRUE)

# Add count of duplicates
collapseDuplicates(db, text_fields=c("c_call", "sample_id"), num_fields="duplicate_count", 
                   add_count=TRUE, verbose=TRUE)

# Masking ragged ends may impact duplicate removal
db$sequence_alignment <- maskSeqEnds(db$sequence_alignment)
collapseDuplicates(db, text_fields=c("c_call", "sample_id"), num_fields="duplicate_count", 
                   add_count=TRUE, verbose=TRUE)

[Package alakazam version 1.2.1 Index]