contr.isotonic {addreg} | R Documentation |
Return something similar to a contrast matrix for a categorical covariate that we wish to be monotonically non-decreasing in a specified order.
contr.isotonic(n, perm, contrasts = TRUE, sparse = FALSE) contr.opisotonic(n, perm, contrasts = TRUE, sparse = FALSE)
n |
a vector of levels for a factor, or the number of levels. |
perm |
a permutation of the levels of |
contrasts |
a logical indicating whether constrasts should be computed. |
sparse |
included for compatibility reasons. Has no effect. |
contr.isotonic
is used in creating the design matrix
for categorical covariates with a specified order under a
particular parameterisation. For Poisson and negative binomial models, this
occurs if a categorical covariate is defined as monotonic;
for binomial models, each parameterisation defines a
permutation of the levels that must be monotonically
increasing.
For overparameterised binomial models, the design matrix for
categorical covariates must include isotonic-style dummy
covariates for every possible permutation of the levels. This
is the function of contr.opisotonic
.
In the order specified by perm
, the coefficient
associated with each level is the sum of increments between
the preceding levels. That is, the first level is defined
as 0, the second as 0 + d_2, the third as 0 + d_2 + d_3, and
so on. In fitting the model, these increments are
constrained to be non-negative.
Note that these are not ‘contrasts’ as defined in the
theory for linear models; rather this is used to define the
contrasts
attribute of each variable so that
model.matrix
produces the desired design
matrix.
A matrix with n
rows and k
columns, with
k=n-1
if contrasts
is TRUE
and
k=n
if contrasts
is FALSE
.
Mark W. Donoghoe markdonoghoe@gmail.com
model.matrix
, which uses
contr.isotonic
to create the design matrix.
contr.treatment
, contrasts
for
their usual use in regression models.
contr.isotonic(4,1:4) contr.isotonic(4,c(1,3,2,4)) # Show how contr.isotonic applies within model.matrix x <- factor(round(runif(20,0,2))) mf <- model.frame(~x) contrasts(x) <- contr.isotonic(levels(x), levels(x)) model.matrix(mf)