ENMevaluate {ENMeval}R Documentation

Tune ecological niche model (ENM) settings and calculate evaluation statistics

Description

ENMevaluate() is the primary function for the ENMeval package. This function builds ecological niche models iteratively across a range of user-specified tuning settings. Users can choose to evaluate models with cross validation or a full-withheld testing dataset. ENMevaluate() returns an ENMevaluation object with slots containing evaluation statistics for each combination of settings and for each cross validation fold therein, as well as raster predictions for each model when raster data is input. The evaluation statistics in the results table should aid users in identifying model settings that balance fit and predictive ability. See the extensive vignette for fully worked examples: <https://jamiemkass.github.io/ENMeval/articles/ENMeval-2.0.0-vignette.html>.

Usage

ENMevaluate(
  occs,
  envs = NULL,
  bg = NULL,
  tune.args = NULL,
  partitions = NULL,
  algorithm = NULL,
  partition.settings = NULL,
  other.settings = NULL,
  categoricals = NULL,
  doClamp = TRUE,
  clamp.directions = NULL,
  user.enm = NULL,
  user.grp = NULL,
  occs.testing = NULL,
  taxon.name = NULL,
  n.bg = 10000,
  overlap = FALSE,
  overlapStat = c("D", "I"),
  user.val.grps = NULL,
  user.eval = NULL,
  rmm = NULL,
  parallel = FALSE,
  numCores = NULL,
  parallelType = "doSNOW",
  updateProgress = FALSE,
  quiet = FALSE,
  occ = NULL,
  env = NULL,
  bg.coords = NULL,
  RMvalues = NULL,
  fc = NULL,
  occ.grp = NULL,
  bg.grp = NULL,
  method = NULL,
  bin.output = NULL,
  rasterPreds = NULL,
  clamp = NULL,
  progbar = NULL
)

Arguments

occs

matrix / data frame: occurrence records with two columns for longitude and latitude of occurrence localities, in that order. If specifying predictor variable values assigned to presence/background localities (without inputting raster data), this table should also have one column for each predictor variable. See Note for important distinctions between running the function with and without rasters.

envs

RasterStack: environmental predictor variables. These should be in same geographic projection as occurrence data.

bg

matrix / data frame: background records with two columns for longitude and latitude of background (or pseudo-absence) localities, in that order. If NULL, points will be randomly sampled across envs with the number specified by argument n.bg. If specifying predictor variable values assigned to presence/background localities (without inputting raster data), this table should also have one column for each predictor variable. See Details for important distinctions between running the function with and without rasters.

tune.args

named list: model settings to be tuned (i.e., for Maxent models: list(fc = c("L","Q"), rm = 1:3))

partitions

character: name of partitioning technique (see ?partitions).

algorithm

character: name of the algorithm used to build models. Currently one of "maxnet", "maxent.jar", or "bioclim", else the name from a custom ENMdetails implementation.

partition.settings

named list: used to specify certain settings for partitioning schema. See Details and ?partitions for descriptions of these settings.

other.settings

named list: used to specify extra settings for the analysis. All of these settings have internal defaults, so if they are not specified the analysis will be run with default settings. See Details for descriptions of these settings.

categoricals

character vector: name or names of categorical environmental variables. If not specified, all predictor variables will be treated as continuous unless they are factors. If categorical variables are already factors, specifying names of such variables in this argument is not needed.

doClamp

boolean: if TRUE (default), model prediction extrapolations will be restricted to the upper and lower bounds of the predictor variables. Clamping avoids extreme predictions for environment values outside the range of the training data. If extrapolation is a study aim, this should be set to FALSE.

clamp.directions

named list: specifies the direction ("left" for minimum, "right" for maximum) of clamping for predictor variables – (e.g., list(left = c("bio1","bio5"), right = c("bio10","bio15"))).

user.enm

ENMdetails object: a custom ENMdetails object used to build models. This is an alternative to specifying algorithm with a character string.

user.grp

named list: specifies user-defined partition groups, where occs.grp = vector of partition group (fold) for each occurrence locality, intended for user-defined partitions, and bg.grp = same vector for background (or pseudo-absence) localities.

occs.testing

matrix / data frame: a fully withheld testing dataset with two columns for longitude and latitude of occurrence localities, in that order when partitions = "testing". These occurrences will be used only for evaluation but not for model training, and thus no cross validation will be performed.

taxon.name

character: name of the focal species or taxon. This is used primarily for annotating the ENMevaluation object and output metadata (rmm), but not necessary for analysis.

n.bg

numeric: the number of background (or pseudo-absence) points to randomly sample over the environmental raster data (default: 10000) if background records were not already provided.

overlap

boolean: if TRUE, calculate niche overlap statistics (Warren et al. 2008).

overlapStat

character: niche overlap statistics to be calculated – "D" (Schoener's D) and or "I" (Hellinger's I) – see ?calc.niche.overlap for more details.

user.val.grps

matrix / data frame: user-defined validation record coordinates and predictor variable values. This is used internally by ENMnulls() to force each null model to evaluate with empirical validation data, and does not have any current use when running ENMevaluate() independently.

user.eval

function: custom function for specifying performance metrics not included in ENMeval. The function must first be defined and then input as the argument user.eval. This function should have a single argument called vars, which is a list that includes different data that can be used to calculate the metric. See Details below and the vignette for a worked example.

rmm

rangeModelMetadata object: if specified, ENMevaluate() will write metadata details for the analysis into this object, but if not, a new rangeModelMetadata object will be generated and included in the output ENMevaluation object.

parallel

boolean: if TRUE, run with parallel processing.

numCores

numeric: number of cores to use for parallel processing. If NULL, all available cores will be used.

parallelType

character: either "doParallel" or "doSNOW" (default: "doSNOW") .

updateProgress

boolean: if TRUE, use shiny progress bar. This is only for use in shiny apps.

quiet

boolean: if TRUE, silence all function messages (but not errors).

occ, env, bg.coords, RMvalues, fc, occ.grp, bg.grp, method, bin.output, rasterPreds, clamp, progbar

These arguments from previous versions are backward-compatible to avoid unnecessary errors for older scripts, but in a later version these arguments will be permanently deprecated.

Details

There are a few methodological details in the implementation of ENMeval 2.0.0 that are important to mention. There is also a brief discussion of some points relevant to null models in ?ENMnulls.

1. By default, validation AUC is calculated with respect to the full background (training + validation). This approach follows Radosavljevic & Anderson (2014).This setting can be changed by assigning other.settings$validation.bg to "partition", which will calculate AUC with respect to the validation background only. The default value for other.settings$validation.bg is "full".

2. The continuous Boyce index (always) and AICc (when no raster is provided) are not calculated using the predicted values of the RasterStack delineating the full study extent, but instead using the predicted values for the background records. This decision to use the background only for calculating the continuous Boyce index was made to simplify the code and improve running time. The decision for AICc was made in order to allow AICc calculations for datasets that do not include raster data. See ?calc.aicc for more details, and for caveats when calculating AICc without raster data (mainly, that if the background does not adequately represent the occurrence records, users should use the raster approach, for reasons explained in the calc.aicc documentation). For both metrics, if the background records are a good representation of the study extent, there should not be much difference between this approach using the background data and the approach that uses rasters.

3. When running ENMevaluate() without raster data, and instead adding the environmental predictor values to the occurrence and background data tables, users may notice some differences in the results. Occurrence records that share a raster grid cell are automatically removed when raster data is provided, but without raster data this functionality cannot operate, and thus any such duplicate occurrence records can remain in the training data. The Java implementation of Maxent (maxent.jar) should automatically remove these records, but the R implementation maxnet does not, and the bioclim() function from the R package dismo does not as well. Therefore, it is up to the user to remove such records before running ENMevaluate() when raster data are not included.

Below are descriptions of the parameters used in the other.settings, partition.settings, and user.eval arguments.

For other.settings, the options are:
* abs.auc.diff - boolean: if TRUE, take absolute value of AUCdiff (default: TRUE)
* pred.type - character: specifies which prediction type should be used to generate maxnet or maxent.jar prediction rasters (default: "cloglog").
* validation.bg - character: either "full" to calculate training and validation AUC and CBI for cross-validation with respect to the full background (default), or "partition" (meant for spatial partitions only) to calculate each with respect to the partitioned background only (i.e., training occurrences are compared to training background, and validation occurrences compared to validation background).
* other.args - named list: any additional model arguments not specified for tuning.

For partition.settings, the current options are:
* orientation - character: one of "lat_lon" (default), "lon_lat", "lat_lat", or "lon_lon" (required for block partition).
* aggregation.factor - numeric vector: one or two numbers specifying the factor with which to aggregate the envs (default: 2) raster to assign partitions (required for the checkerboard partitions).
* kfolds - numeric: the number of folds (i.e., partitions) for random partitions (default: 5).

For the block partition, the orientation specifications are abbreviations for "latitude" and "longitude", and they determine the order and orientations with which the block partitioning function creates the partition groups. For example, "lat_lon" will split the occurrence localities first by latitude, then by longitude. For the checkerboard partitions, the aggregation factor specifies how much to aggregate the existing cells in the envs raster to make new spatial partitions. For example, checkerboard1 with an aggregation factor value of 2 will make the grid cells 4 times larger and then assign occurrence and background records to partition groups based on which cell they are in. The checkerboard2 partition is hierarchical, so cells are first aggregated to define groups like checkerboard1, but a second aggregation is then made to separate the resulting 2 bins into 4 bins. For checkerboard2, two different numbers can be used to specify the two levels of the hierarchy, or if a single number is inserted, that value will be used for both levels.

For user.eval, the accessible variables you have access to in order to run your custom function are below. See the vignette for a worked example.
* enm - ENMdetails object
* occs.train.z - data frame: predictor variable values for training occurrences
* occs.val.z - data frame: predictor variable values for validation occurrences
* bg.train.z - data frame: predictor variable values for training background
* bg.val.z - data frame: predictor variable values for validation background
* mod.k - Model object for current partition (k)
* nk - numeric: number of folds (i.e., partitions)
* other.settings - named list: other settings specified in ENMevaluate()
* partitions - character: name of the partition method (e.g., "block")
* occs.train.pred - numeric: predictions made by mod.k for training occurrences
* occs.val.pred - numeric: predictions made by mod.k for validation occurrences
* bg.train.pred - numeric: predictions made by mod.k for training background
* bg.val.pred - numeric: predictions made by mod.k for validation background

Value

An ENMevaluation object. See ?ENMevaluation for details.

References

Muscarella, R., Galante, P. J., Soley-Guardia, M., Boria, R. A., Kass, J. M., Uriarte, M., & Anderson, R. P. (2014). ENMeval: An R package for conducting spatially independent evaluations and estimating optimal model complexity for Maxent ecological niche models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 5: 1198-1205. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12261

Warren, D. L., Glor, R. E., Turelli, M. & Funk, D. (2008) Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: quantitative approaches to niche evolution. Evolution, 62: 2868-2883. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00482.x

Examples

## Not run: 
occs <- read.csv(file.path(system.file(package="dismo"), "/ex/bradypus.csv"))[,2:3]
envs <- raster::stack(list.files(path=paste(system.file(package="dismo"), "/ex", sep=""), 
                                 pattern="grd", full.names=TRUE))
occs.z <- cbind(occs, raster::extract(envs, occs))
occs.z$biome <- factor(occs.z$biome)
bg <- as.data.frame(dismo::randomPoints(envs, 1000))
names(bg) <- names(occs)
bg.z <- cbind(bg, raster::extract(envs, bg))
bg.z$biome <- factor(bg.z$biome)
tune.args <- list(fc = c("L","LQ","LQH","H"), rm = 1:5)
os <- list(abs.auc.diff = FALSE, pred.type = "logistic", validation.bg = "partition")
ps <- list(orientation = "lat_lat")

e <- ENMevaluate(occs, envs, bg, tune.args = tune.args, partitions = "block", 
other.settings = os, partition.settings = ps,
algorithm = "maxnet", categoricals = "biome", overlap = TRUE)

## End(Not run)


[Package ENMeval version 2.0.1 Index]