DMMF {DMMF}R Documentation

Daily based Morgan–Morgan–Finney (DMMF) soil erosion model

Description

Estimating surface runoff and sediment budget using the Daily based Morgan–Morgan–Finney soil erosion model using the algorithm from Choi et al. (2017)

Usage

DMMF(DEM, R, RI, ET, P_c, P_z, P_s, theta_init, theta_sat, theta_fc, 
     SD, K, P_I, n_s, CC, GC, IMP, PH, D, NV, d_a = 0.005, 
     DK_c = 0.1, DK_z = 0.5, DK_s = 0.3, 
     DR_c = 1.0, DR_z = 1.6, DR_s = 1.5, 
     Breaking, Init_point, Sinks, R_Type = 0, slpMode = 2, ALL = TRUE)

Arguments

DEM

RasterLayer object of digital elevation model (DEM)

R

Numeric vector or RasterBrick object of daily rainfall per unit area (unit: mm)

RI

Numeric vector or RasterBrick object of mean hourly rainfall intensity during a day (unit: mm/h)

ET

Numeric vector or RasterBrick object of evapotranspiration per unit area (unit: mm)

P_c

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of proportion of clay particles in surface soil (0-1)

P_z

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of proportion of silt particles in surface soil (0-1)

P_s

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of proportion of sand particles in surface soil (0-1)

theta_init

Numeric vector or RasterBrick object of initial soil water content of entire soil profile per unit area (unit: vol/vol)

theta_sat

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of saturated soil water content of entire soil profile per unit area (unit: vol/vol)

theta_fc

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of soil water content at field capacity of entire soil profile per unit area (unit: vol/vol)

SD

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of soil depth of entire soil profile (unit: m)

K

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of saturated lateral hydraulic conductivity of entire soil profile (unit: m/d)

P_I

Numeric vector or Raster* object of proportion of permanent interception area of rainfall (0-1)

n_s

Numeric vector or Raster* object of Manning's roughness coefficient of the soil surface (unit: \mathrm{s}/{\mathrm{m}^{1/3}})

CC

Numeric vector or Raster* object of proportion of area with canopy cover (0-1)

GC

Numeric vector or Raster* object of proportion of area with pervious vegetated ground cover (0-1)

IMP

Numeric vector or Raster* object of proportion of area with impervious ground cover (0-1)

PH

Numeric vector or Raster* object of average height of vegetation or crop cover where leaf drainage start to fall (unit: m)

D

Numeric vector or Raster* object of average diameter of individual plant elements at the surface (unit: m)

NV

Numeric vector or Raster* object of number of individual plant elements per unit area (unit: \mathrm{number}/\mathrm{m^2})

d_a

Numeric vector or Raster* object of typical flow depth of surface runoff (unit: m)

DK_c

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of clay particles by rainfall (unit: g/J)

DK_z

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of silt particles by rainfall (unit: g/J)

DK_s

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of sand particles by rainfall (unit: g/J)

DR_c

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of clay particles by surface runoff (unit: g/mm)

DR_z

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of silt particles by surface runoff (unit: g/mm)

DR_s

Numeric vector or RasterLayer object of detachability of sand particles by surface runoff (unit: g/mm)

Breaking

Numeric vector of starting points of each simulation period (0: during the period points, 1: breaking points), If breaking is missing, by default the first day is set to 1 and the other days are set to 0.

Init_point

Numeric vector of starting points of each rainfall event (0: during the period points, 1: breaking points), If Init_point is missing, Init_point is set to Breaking by default.

Sinks

RasterLayer object of sinks (e.g., streams, reservoirs, and lakes) of sediments and surface runoff (optional).

R_Type

Integer object of each rainfall type for estimating kinetic energy of direct throughfall (DT) (0-8) (see details)

slpMode

Integer object of slope calculation algorithm (2: second order, 3: third order)

ALL

Logical object of selection for the entire output results

Details

R_Type can be chosen among options appropriate for each regions according to Morgan (2001) and Morgan (2005). Default option adopts recent universal relationships between kinetic energy density and mean hourly rainfall intensity (RI) from Shin et al. (2016). Default option is recommended when users have measured RI. Detailed descriptions are described below.

Option Region Kinetic energy density of throughfall [\mathrm{J/m^{2}/mm}]
0 Universal (Default) 10.3 \cdot \mathrm{RI}^{2/9}
1 North America 11.87 + 8.73 \cdot \log_{10}(\mathrm{RI})
2 North-west Europe 8.95 + 8.44 \cdot \log_{10}(\mathrm{RI})
3 Mediterranean 9.81 + 11.25 \cdot \log_{10}(\mathrm{RI})
4 West Mediterranean 35.9 \cdot (1.0 - 0.56 \cdot \exp(-0.034 \cdot \mathrm{RI}))
5 Tropics 29.8 - ( 127.5 / \mathrm{RI} )
6 East Asia 9.81 + 10.60 \cdot \log_{10}( \mathrm{RI} )
7 Temperate Southern hemisphere 29.0 \cdot ( 1.0 - 0.6 \cdot \exp( -0.04 \cdot \mathrm{RI} ) )
8 Universal 28.3 \cdot ( 1.0 - 0.52 \cdot \exp( -0.042 \cdot \mathrm{RI} ) )

Multi-flow direction algorithm (MD\infty) from Seibert and McGlynn (2007) is built in the DMMF model.

Value

The output of the function DMMF is a list of RasterLayer or RasterBrick objects containing the following elements:

Author(s)

Kwanghun Choi and Bjoern Reineking

References

Choi, K., Arnhold, S., Huwe, B., Reineking, B. (2017). Daily based Morgan–Morgan–Finney (DMMF) model: A spatially distributed conceptual soil erosion model to simulate complex soil surface configurations. Water, 9(4), 278.

Shin, S. S., Park, S. D., and Choi, B. K. (2016). Universal power law for relationship between rainfall kinetic energy and rainfall intensity. Advances in Meteorology, Article ID 2494681, 11 pages.

Seibert, J., McGlynn, B. L. (2007). A new triangular multiple flow direction algorithm for computing upslope areas from gridded digital elevation models. Water Resources Research, 43(4):W04501.

Morgan, R. P. C. (2005). Soil erosion and conservation. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, 3rd ed. ISBN 1-4051-1781-8

Morgan, R. P. C. (2001) A simple approach to soil loss prediction: a revised Morgan–Morgan–Finney model. Catena, 44(4):305–322.

See Also

DMMF_Simple for one element during a day. Potato.Convex for the description of the data.

Examples

## Not run: 
## Load example data for test running DMMF model
data(Potato.Convex)
attach(Potato.Convex)
## Run DMMF function using Potato.Convex data
Result <- DMMF(DEM = s.map$DEM, R = d.var$R, RI = d.var$RI, ET = d.var$ET, 
               P_c = s.var$P_c, P_z = s.var$P_z, P_s = s.var$P_s, 
               theta_init = d.map$theta_init, theta_sat = s.var$theta_sat, 
               theta_fc = s.var$theta_fc,
               SD = s.var$SD, K = s.var$K, P_I = s.var$P_I, n_s = s.map$n_s, 
               CC = d.var$CC, GC = s.var$GC, IMP = s.map$IMP, PH = d.var$PH, 
               D = s.var$D, NV = s.var$NV, d_a = s.var$d_a,
               DK_c = s.var$DK_c, DK_z = s.var$DK_z, DK_s = s.var$DK_s, 
               DR_c = s.var$DR_c, DR_z = s.var$DR_z, DR_s = s.var$DR_s, 
               Breaking = d.var$Breaking, Init_point = d.var$Init_point, 
               R_Type = 0, slpMode = 2, ALL = TRUE)
## Check results
## 1-a. Total volume of runoff generated from each element
plot(Result$Q_out)
## 1-b. Total volume of runoff per unit surface area generated from each element
plot(Result$Q_out/Result$A)

## 2-a. Total mass of eroded soil from each element
plot(Result$SL_out)
## 2-a. Total mass of eroded soil per unit surface area from each element
plot(Result$SL_out/Result$A)

## End(Not run)

[Package DMMF version 0.5.1.2 Index]