Compind-package {Compind}R Documentation

Composite Indicators - Compind


Compind package contains functions to enhance several approaches to the Composite Indicators (CIs) methods, focusing, in particular, on the normalisation and weighting-aggregation steps.


Francesco Vidoli, Elisa Fusco Maintainer: Francesco Vidoli <>


Daraio, C., Simar, L. (2005) "Introducing environmental variables in nonparametric frontier models: a probabilistic approach", Journal of productivity analysis, 24(1), 93-121.

Fusco E. (2015) "Enhancing non compensatory composite indicators: A directional proposal", European Journal of Operational Research, 242(2), 620-630.

Fusco E. (2023) "Potential improvements approach in composite indicators construction: the Multi-directional Benefit of the Doubt model", Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, vol. 85, 101447

Fusco, E., Liborio, M.P., Rabiei-Dastjerdi, H., Vidoli, F., Brunsdon, C. and Ekel, P.I. (2023), Harnessing Spatial Heterogeneity in Composite Indicators through the Ordered Geographically Weighted Averaging (OGWA) Operator. Geographical Analysis.

R. Lahdelma, P. Salminen (2001) "SMAA-2: Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis for group decision making", Operations Research, 49(3), pp. 444-454

OECD (2008) "Handbook on constructing composite indicators: methodology and user guide".

Mazziotta C., Mazziotta M., Pareto A., Vidoli F. (2010) "La sintesi di indicatori territoriali di dotazione infrastrutturale: metodi di costruzione e procedure di ponderazione a confronto", Rivista di Economia e Statistica del territorio, n.1.

Melyn W. and Moesen W.W. (1991) "Towards a synthetic indicator of macroeconomic performance: unequal weighting when limited information is available", Public Economic research Paper 17, CES, KU Leuven.

Van Puyenbroeck T. and Rogge N. (2017) "Geometric mean quantity index numbers with Benefit-of-the-Doubt weights", European Journal of Operational Research, 256(3), 1004-1014.

Rogge N., de Jaeger S. and Lavigne C. (2017) "Waste Performance of NUTS 2-regions in the EU: A Conditional Directional Distance Benefit-of-the-Doubt Model", Ecological Economics, vol.139, pp. 19-32.

Simar L., Vanhems A. (2012) "Probabilistic characterization of directional distances and their robust versions", Journal of Econometrics, 166(2), 342-354.

UNESCO (1974)"Social indicators: problems of definition and of selection", Paris.

Vidoli F., Fusco E., Mazziotta C. (2015) "Non-compensability in composite indicators: a robust directional frontier method", Social Indicators Research, 122(3), 635-652.

Vidoli F., Mazziotta C. (2013) "Robust weighted composite indicators by means of frontier methods with an application to European infrastructure endowment", Statistica Applicata, Italian Journal of Applied Statistics.

Zanella A., Camanho A.S. and Dias T.G. (2015) "Undesirable outputs and weighting schemes in composite indicators based on data envelopment analysis", European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 245(2), pp. 517-530.

[Package Compind version 3.1 Index]