koeppen_geiger {ClimClass}R Documentation

Koeppen - Geiger's climate classification


General climate classification after Koeppen - Geiger.


koeppen_geiger(clim_norm, A_B_C_special_sub.classes = FALSE,
  clim.resume_verbose = TRUE, class.nr = FALSE)



average values (climate normals) for the desired period.


logical. Sets if calculations have to consider sub-classes based on rain features in climate types A, B, and C (see details). Default is FALSE.


logical. If TRUE (default) a resume of the climatic indices used for the Koeppen - Geiger classification is added to the output.


logical. If FALSE (default) class is expressed by letters, otherwise by numbers (see details).


clim_norm is a monthly data frame of climate normals, with column names: "P", "Tn", "Tx", "Tm" (precipitation, minimum, maximum and mean temperature, respectively). It can be the output of function climate.

Koeppen - Geiger's classification is based on Trewartha and Lyle, 1980. The function also holds for Southern emisphere, except for the "Gange" sub-type ("Ag" and "Cg"). Type "H" (highland climate) and sub-types "Bn" and "Cn" (where n stands for Nebel) are never attributed, being based on a qualitative description in the quoted reference.

Sub-type "w" (wet-and-dry) or "m" (monsoon) in climate "A" is set according to the definition after Encyclopaedia Britannica (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/322068/Koppen-climate-classification): if P in the 4 driest months is less than 1/5 of the wettest months and if both the 4 driest and wettest months are split over non-contiguous seasons (either 2 months per season or 1 and 3 months per season), then sub-type is "".

For climate "A", the letter "m" is attributed to the first sub-type.

Climates "Cx" have P[May + June] >= 1.3 P [Aug. + Sept.] in N emisphere, and P[Nov. + Dec.] >= 1.3 P[Febr. + March] in S emisphere.

A_B_C_special_sub.classes, if TRUE, adds a letter to the second sub-type of climates: "i" or "g" (climate A), "w" or "s" (climate B), and "i", "g", or "x" (climate C).

The returned data frame contains the following fields:

T_w.m = temperature of the warmest month (degrees C)

T_c.m = temperature of the coldest month (degrees C)

T_avg = average temperature (degrees C)

P_tot = total precipitation depth (mm)

P_wint = precipitation depth in the 6 coldest (winter) months (mm)

P_summ = precipitation depth in the 6 warmest (summer) months (mm)

P_d.m = precipitation depth in the driest month (mm)

P_d.m.summ = precipitation depth in the driest month of "summer" half of the year (mm)

P_d.m.wint = precipitation depth in the driest month of "winter" half of the year (mm)

P_w.m = precipitation depth in the wettest month (mm)

P_w.m.summ = precipitation depth in the driest month of "summer" half of the year (mm)

P_w.m.wint = precipitation depth in the wettest month of "winter" half of the year (mm)

T_4th_w.m = temperature of the 4th warmest month (degrees C)

class = climatic class. If class.nr=FALSE (default), it results from the merging of "climate" (A to E) and sub-type(s). If class.nr=TRUE the class comes from the sum of the numeric equivalent of "type" (A,..E) + "first sub type" (only first letter), according to the following scheme:


10 20 30 40 50

f W s s T –> 1

w S w w F –> 2

m f f –> 3

(e.g: Af = 11, Cw = 32, EF = 52)


A one-line data frame reporting a resume of climatic features useful for the classification (if clim.resume_verbose is TRUE), and one last field (1 type - or "climate" - plus 1 or 2 sub-types) reporting Koeppen - Geiger's climate classification. See details.


Emanuele Eccel


Trewartha, G.T. and Lyle, H.H., 1980: An Introduction to Climate. MacGraw - Hill, 5th Ed. Appendix: Koeppen's Classification of Climates.

See Also



# clima_81_10 is a list of data frames having climatic means of temperature and precipitation as 
# required by Koeppen - Geiger classification, each one referring to one station. 
# It can be the output of function climate.
class_clim_l<-lapply(clima_81_10, FUN=koeppen_geiger, A_B_C_special_sub.classes=TRUE)

[Package ClimClass version 2.1.0 Index]