cyEffTest {ChainLadder}R Documentation

Testing for Calendar Year Effect


One of the three basic assumptions underlying the chain ladder method is the independence of the accident years. The function tests this assumption.


cyEffTest(Triangle, ci = 0.95)



cumulative claims triangle. Assume columns are the development period, use transpose otherwise. A (mxn)-matrix C_{ik} which is filled for k ≤q n+1-i; i=1,…,m; m≥q n , see qpaid for how to use (mxn)-development triangles with m<n, say higher development period frequency (e.g quarterly) than origin period frequency (e.g accident years).


confidence interval. Default: .95. A confidence interval is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statis tics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter. The interval has an associated confidence level that quantifies the level of confidence that the parameter lies in the interval.


The main reason why this independence can be violated in practice is the fact that there could be certain calendar year effects such as major changes in claims handling or in case reserving or external influences such as substantial changes in court decisions or inflation.

As described by the Mack's 1994 paper a procedure is designed to test for calendar year influences.

The procedure returns a summary statistic Z which is assumed to be Normally Distributed. It is therefore possible to define a confidence interval threshold in order to evaluate the outcome of the test.


cyEffTest returns a list with the following elements


complete table of results


summary statistic


expected value of the resulting distribution


variance of the resulting distribution


vector of the range corresponding the confidence interval threshold selected


confidence interval


Additional references for further reading:

Thomas Mack. Distribution-free calculation of the standard error of chain ladder reserve estimates. Astin Bulletin. Vol. 23. No 2. 1993. pp.213:225

Thomas Mack. The standard error of chain ladder reserve estimates: Recursive calculation and inclusion of a tail factor. Astin Bulletin. Vol. 29. No 2. 1999. pp.361:366


Marco De Virgilis


Mack, T., Measuring the Variability of Chain Ladder Reserve Estimates, Casualty Actuarial Society Forum, Spring 1994

See Also

See also qpaid for dealing with non-square triangles, dfCorTest for the test for correlations between subsequent development factors, chainladder for the chain-ladder method, summary.cyEffTest, plot.cyEffTest


# Before actually applying the Chain Ladder technique it is necessary to check
# wether the triangle has Calendar Year Effect

# Apply the function to the triangle and save the output into the variable test
test <- cyEffTest(RAA)

# Plot the confidence interval and the test metric

# The metric is within the confidence interval, therefore the triangle doesn't
# have Calendar Year Effect

# Print the summary table

# Print only the main outcomes
# The test has returned a negative outcome. This means that the triangle is 
# not affected by Caledar Year Effect and therefore the chain ladder method 
# can be applied.

[Package ChainLadder version 0.2.12 Index]