NaCl {CHNOSZ} | R Documentation |

## Simple NaCl-Water Solution

### Description

Calculate speciation and ionic strength of aqueous solutions with a given molality of NaCl.

### Usage

```
NaCl(m_tot = 1, T = 25, P = "Psat", pH = NA, attenuate = FALSE)
```

### Arguments

`m_tot` |
numeric, total molality of NaCl (single value) |

`T` |
numeric, temperature in °C |

`P` |
numeric, pressure in bar |

`pH` |
numeric, pH |

`attenuate` |
logical, halve changes of variables in each step? |

### Details

Thermodynamic models for metal solubility and speciation involving chloride complexes are commonly specified in terms of amount of NaCl rather than activity (or molality) of Cl^{-} as an independent variable.
This function calculates distribution of species and ionic strength in a simple aqueous solution given a total amount (`m_tot`

, in mol/kg) of NaCl.
The aqueous Cl-bearing species considered in the system are Cl^{-}, NaCl, and optionally HCl.
Na^{+} is present as a basis species, but the formation of Na-bearing species such as NaOH is not considered.
The activity coefficients of charged species are calculated using the extended Debye-Hückel equation (see `nonideal`

) via the `IS`

argument of `affinity`

.
The function first sets the molality of Na^{+} and ionic strength equal to `m_tot`

, then calculates the distribution of Cl-bearing species.
Based on mass balance of Na atoms, the molality of NaCl is then used to recalculate the molality of Na^{+}, followed by ionic strength.
To find a solution, the function iterates until the change of molality of Na^{+} and ionic strength are both less than `m_tot`

/ 100.

At very high NaCl concentrations, which are beyond the applicability limits of the extended Debye-Hückel model and therefore not recommended for normal use, the iterations tend to oscillate without converging.
Setting `attenuate`

to TRUE, which halves the amount of change in each step, may help with convergence.
If a solution is not found after 100 iterations, the function stops with an error.

If `pH`

is NA (the default), then HCl is not included in the calculation and its molality in the output is also assigned NA.
Note that only a single value is accepted for `m_tot`

, but the other numeric arguments can have length > 1, allowing multiple combinations `T`

, `P`

, and `pH`

in a single function call.
However, due to limitations in `affinity`

, only one of `T`

and `P`

can have length > 1.

### Value

A list with components ‘IS’ (ionic strength calculated from molalities of Na^{+} and Cl^{-}), ‘m_Cl’, ‘m_Cl’, ‘m_NaCl’, and ‘m_HCl’ (molalities of Na^{+}, Cl^{-}, NaCl, and HCl).

### Warning

It is important to keep in mind the ionic strength limits of the Debye-Hückel equation, but this function doesn't enforce them. Furthermore, metal-ligand complexing is not calculated by this function, so metal solubility and speciation calculations will be accurate only for relatively insoluble metals in NaCl-dominated solutions.

### References

Shvarov, Y. and Bastrakov, E. (1999) HCh: A software package for geochemical equilibrium modelling. User's Guide. *Australian Geological Survey Organisation* **1999/25**. https://pid.geoscience.gov.au/dataset/ga/25473

### See Also

This function is used in a few demos (`demo("contour")`

, `demo("gold")`

, `demo("minsol")`

, `demo("sphalerite")`

).
`demo("yttrium")`

uses the `pH`

argument.

### Examples

```
# Ionic strength calculated with HCh version 3.7 (Shvarov and Bastrakov, 1999)
# at 1000 bar, 100, 200, and 300 degress C, and 1 to 6 molal NaCl
m.HCh <- 1:6
IS.HCh <- list(`100` = c(0.992, 1.969, 2.926, 3.858, 4.758, 5.619),
`300` = c(0.807, 1.499, 2.136, 2.739, 3.317, 3.875),
`500` = c(0.311, 0.590, 0.861, 1.125, 1.385, 1.642))
# Total molality in the calculation with NaCl()
m_tot <- seq(1, 6, 0.5)
N <- length(m_tot)
# Where we'll put the calculated values
IS.calc <- data.frame(`100` = numeric(N), `300` = numeric(N), `500` = numeric(N))
# NaCl() is *not* vectorized over m_tot, so we use a loop here
for(i in 1:length(m_tot)) {
NaCl.out <- NaCl(m_tot[i], c(100, 300, 500), P = 1000)
IS.calc[i, ] <- NaCl.out$IS
}
# Plot ionic strength from HCh and NaCl() as points and lines
col <- c("black", "red", "orange")
plot(c(1,6), c(0,6), xlab = "NaCl (mol/kg)", ylab = axis.label("IS"), type = "n")
for(i in 1:3) {
# NOTE: the differences are probably mostly due to different models
# for the properties of NaCl(aq) (HCh: B.Ryhzenko model;
# CHONSZ: revised HKF with parameters from Shock et al., 1997)
points(m.HCh, IS.HCh[[i]], col = col[i])
lines(m_tot, IS.calc[, i], col = col[i])
}
# Add legend and title
dprop <- describe.property(rep("T", 3), c(100, 300, 500))
legend("topleft", dprop, lty = 1, pch = 1, col = col)
title(main="H2O + NaCl; HCh (points) and 'NaCl()' (lines)")
```

*CHNOSZ*version 2.1.0 Index]