## range factors

### Description

The sample range `R`

is a biased estimator for the
population standard deviation of R. For a normally distributed sample of
size `n`

, `d_3(n)R`

is an unbiased estimator of the
standard deviation of R.

### Usage

```
d_3(n)
```

### Arguments

### Value

a numeric value representing the multiplier to render R unbiased for
the standard deviation of R

### Author(s)

W.J. Braun

### References

Montgomery, D.C. (2000) Introduction to Statistical Quality
Control, Wiley

### See Also

`d_2`

### Examples

```
x <- rnorm(10, sd = 3)
R <- diff(range(x))
d_3(10)*R # expected value of this is (V(R))^{1/2}
```

[Package

*CC* version 1.0

Index]