## range factors

### Description

The sample range `R`

is a biased estimator for the
population standard deviation. For a normally distributed sample of
size `n`

, `R/d2(n)`

is unbiased.

### Usage

```
d_2(n)
```

### Arguments

### Value

a numeric value representing the multiplier to render R unbiased

### Author(s)

W.J. Braun

### References

Montgomery, D.C. (2000) Introduction to Statistical Quality
Control, Wiley

### See Also

`d_3`

### Examples

```
x <- rnorm(10, sd = 3)
R <- diff(range(x))
R/d_2(10) # expected value of this is 3
```

[Package

*CC* version 1.0

Index]