ses {BAT} | R Documentation |

## Standard Effect Size.

### Description

Calculates the standard effect size from observed and estimated values.

### Usage

```
ses(obs, est, param = TRUE, p = TRUE)
```

### Arguments

`obs` |
A single observed value. |

`est` |
A vector with estimated values. |

`param` |
Value is calculated with parametric or non-parametric method. Because standardized effect sizes may lead to biased conclusions if null values show an asymmetric distribution or deviate from normality, non-parametric effect sizes use probit transformed p-values (Lhotsky et al., 2016). |

`p` |
Boolean indicating whether the p-value should be returned. |

### Value

The ses value or a vector with ses and p-value.

### References

Lhotsky et al. (2016) Changes in assembly rules along a stress gradient from open dry grasslands to wetlands. Journal of Ecology, 104: 507-517.

### Examples

```
est = rnorm(1000, 500, 100)
ses(100, est)
ses(100, est, param = FALSE)
ses(500, est)
ses(500, est, param = FALSE)
ses(900, est, p = TRUE)
ses(900, est, param = FALSE, p = TRUE)
```

[Package

*BAT*version 2.9.6 Index]