simDynocc {AHMbook}R Documentation

Simulate detection/nondetection data under a wide variety of non-spatial dynamic occupancy models

Description

Function to simulate detection/nondetection data under a general dynamic site-occupancy model, including:

* Annual variation in the probabilities of patch persistence, colonization and detection is specified by the bounds of a uniform distribution.

* One covariate is allowed to affect each parameter: a site covariate for psi1, site-by-year covariates for phi and gamma, and an observational covariate for p. Covariates are generated internally from uniform(-2, 2) distributions.

* Additional heterogeneity among sites in persistence and colonization or both.

* Additional detection heterogeneity at the site-, the survey, or the site-by-survey level, with the possibility of a temporal trend in this heterogeneity over the years. E.g., an annual trend in detection heterogeneity at the site or the survey level is specified by the first and second value, which correspond to the heterogeneity in the first and the last year. Hence, trend.sd.site = c(0, 1) will result in a linear trend in the magnitude of site heterogeneity in detection from 0 in the first year to 1 in the last year.

* Additional detection heterogeneity that varies over the survey (= occasion) according to a quadratic effect of occasion number (to model the typical phenology of an insect species for instance).

* Simulation of data under a BACI (before-after-control-impact) design, where some event happens in a given year and reduces phi or gamma by a stated percentage (only reductions, no increases allowed!)

Usage

simDynocc(nsites = 250, nyears = 10, nsurveys = 3, year.of.impact = NA,
  mean.psi1 = 0.4, beta.Xpsi1 = 0,
  range.phi = c(0.5, 1), sd.lphi.site = 0, impact.phi = 0, beta.Xphi = 0,
  range.gamma = c(0, 0.5), sd.lgamma.site = 0, impact.gamma = 0, beta.Xgamma = 0,
  sd.lphi.lgamma.site = 0,
  range.p = c(0.1, 0.9), beta.Xp = 0,
  range.beta1.survey = c(0, 0), range.beta2.survey = c(0, 0),
  trend.sd.site = c(0, 0), trend.sd.survey = c(0, 0),
  trend.sd.site.survey = c(0, 0), show.plots = TRUE)

Arguments

nsites

Number of sites.

nyears

Number of years (or 'seasons').

nsurveys

Number of replicate surveys (= occasions) within a year.

year.of.impact

Year in which an impact happens that can affect phi and gamma (for BACI design), NA if no impact occurs; for the BACI design, nyears must be greater than 2, and year of impact cannot be the first or last year.

mean.psi1

average occupancy probability in first year.

beta.Xpsi1

coefficient of environmental covariate in probability of initial occupancy.

range.phi

bounds of uniform distribution from which annual probability of persistence is randomly drawn.

sd.lphi.site

SD of random site effect on persistence on the logit scale drawn from a normal distribution with mean zero.

impact.phi

negative effect in percent on annual phi (e.g., impact.phi = 20 means a 20% reduction in phi); ignored if year.of.impact = NA.

beta.Xphi

coefficients of environmental covariate in probability of persistence.

range.gamma

bounds of uniform distribution from which annual probability of colonization is randomly drawn.

sd.lgamma.site

SD of random site effect on colonization on the logit scale drawn from a normal distribution with mean zero.

impact.gamma

negative effect in percent on annual gamma (e.g., impact.gamma = 20 means a 20% reduction in gamma); ignored if year.of.impact = NA.

beta.Xgamma

coefficient of environmental covariate in probability of colonization.

sd.lphi.lgamma.site

SD of random site effect on persistence AND colonization on the logit scale drawn from a normal distribution with mean zero.

range.p

bounds of uniform distribution from which annual probability of detection is randomly drawn.

beta.Xp

coefficients of environmental covariate in probability of detection.

range.beta1.survey

bounds of the uniform distribution from which the annual variation in the linear effect of the survey occasion (i.e., of survey 1-12 with nsurveys = 12) on detection (= product of availability and perceptibility) is randomly drawn.

range.beta2.survey

the same for the quadratic effect of survey occasion.

trend.sd.site

initial and final values of sd of normal distribution to model logit-normal noise in p at the site level; a linear trend is assumed over time; if the two values are the same, a constant value is assumed.

trend.sd.survey

initial and final values of sd of normal distribution to model logit-normal noise in p only at the 'survey' level; if they are different, a linear trend is assumed over time.

trend.sd.site.survey

initial and final values of sd of normal distribution to model logit-normal noise in p at the site/year/survey = ‘survey’ level; if they are different, a linear trend is assumed over time.

show.plots

If TRUE, plots of results are displayed; set to FALSE if running simulations.

Value

A list with the values of the arguments input and the following additional elements:

impact

a 0/1 vector of length (nyears-1) indicating if an impact applies to the interval

BACI.effect.phi

reduction in persistence due to impact, a vector of length nyears - 1

BACI.effect.gamma

reduction in colonization due to impact, a vector of length nyears - 1

beta1

linear effect of occasion on the product of availability and detection, a vector of length nyears

beta2

quadratic effect of occasion on the product of availability and detection, a vector of length nyears

mean.phi

mean persistence for each interval before application of any BACI effect, a vector of length nyears - 1

mean.gamma

mean colonization for each interval before application of any BACI effect, a vector of length nyears - 1

mean.p

mean detection probability for each year, a vector of length nyears

psi

annual occupancy for each site, a nsites x nyears matrix

mean.psi

average occupancy over sites, a vector of length nyears

n.occ

number of occupied sites, a vector of length nyears

psi.fs

finite-sample occupancy proportion, a vector of length nyears

psi.app

apparent occupancy over sites, a vector of length nyears

z

true occurrence state, a nsites x nyears matrix of 0/1

phi

persistence, a nsites x nyears-1 matrix

gamma

colonization, a nsites x nyears-1 matrix

p

detection probability, a nsites x nsurveys x nyears array

y

the observed detection history, a nsites x nsurveys x nyears array

Xpsi1

covariate affecting initial occupancy, a vector of length nsites

Xphi

covariate affecting persistence, a nsites x nyears matrix

Xgamma

covariate affecting colonization, a nsites x nyears matrix

Xp

covariate affecting probability of detection, a nsites x nsurveys x nyears array

eps.lphi.site

site random effects on persistence, a vector of length nsites

eps.lgamma.site

site random effects on colonization, a vector of length nsites

eps.lphi.lgamma.site

site random effects on persistence and colonization, a vector of length nsites

eps1

site random effects on detection, a vector of length nsites

eps2

the survey random effects on detection, a vector of length nsurveys

eps3

the site/survey/year random effects on detection, a nsites x nsurveys x nyears array

Author(s)

Marc Kéry & Andy Royle

References

Kéry, M. & Royle, J.A. (2021) Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology AHM2 - 4.

Examples

# Generate data with the default arguments and look at the structure
tmp <- simDynocc()
str(tmp)

# no annual variation in the parameters
str(data <- simDynocc(nsites = 250, nsurveys = 3, nyears = 10, mean.psi1 = 0.6,
    range.phi = c(0.7, 0.7), range.gamma = c(0.3, 0.3), range.p = c(0.5, 0.5)))
# a fully time-dependent model (with p constant within each primary period)
str(data <- simDynocc(mean.psi1 = 0.6, range.phi = c(0.5, 0.8),
   range.gamma = c(0.1, 0.5), range.p = c(0.1, 0.9)) )
# a time-constant model with four different covariates affecting the four parameters
str(data <- simDynocc(mean.psi1 = 0.6, beta.Xpsi1 = 1,
  range.phi = c(0.6, 0.6), beta.Xphi = 2, range.gamma = c(0.3, 0.3),
  beta.Xgamma = 2, range.p = c(0.2, 0.2), beta.Xp = -2) )
# seasonal variation in detection probability
str(data <- simDynocc(nsurveys = 12, mean.psi1 = 0.6,
  range.phi = c(0.6, 0.6), range.gamma = c(0.3, 0.3),
  range.p = c(0.5, 0.5), range.beta1.survey = c(-0.3, 0.4),
  range.beta2.survey = c(0, -0.7)) )
# now both yearly variation and effects of all covariates (including survey)
str( data <- simDynocc(mean.psi1 = 0.6, beta.Xpsi1 = 1,
   range.phi = c(0.6, 1), beta.Xphi = 2, range.gamma = c(0, 0.2),
   beta.Xgamma = 2, range.p = c(0.1, 0.9), beta.Xp = -2,
   range.beta1.survey = c(-0.4, 0.5), range.beta2.survey = c(0, -0.8)) )

# To add detection heterogeneity at the site level, you can do this:
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.site = c(3, 3)) ) # No time trend
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.site = c(1, 3)) ) # With time trend

# To add detection heterogeneity at the level of the survey, you can do this:
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.survey = c(3, 3)) ) # No time trend
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.survey = c(1, 3)) ) # With time trend

# To add detection heterogeneity at the level of the individual visit, you can do this:
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.site.survey = c(3, 3)) ) # No trend
str(data <- simDynocc(trend.sd.site.survey = c(1, 3)) ) # With trend

# To simulate data under a BACI design, where an impact happens in year 10
str(data <- simDynocc(nsites = 250, nsurveys = 3, nyears = 20, year.of.impact = 10,
   impact.phi = 80, impact.gamma = 50) )

# And data where there is no detection error (i.e., with p = 1):
str( data <- simDynocc(range.p = c(1, 1)) )


[Package AHMbook version 0.2.3 Index]